Lecture 43: Elements of the Adaptive Immune Response Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 43: Elements of the Adaptive Immune Response Deck (13):
1

MHC = ?

- Major Histocompatibility Complex

2

Leukocytes are a minor constituent of blood but are the ____ cells involved in ____.

- Main
- Immunity

3

You cut yourself with a bread knife this morning, your immune system then works hard to destroy invaders. Picks up all the pieces of the invaders and sends them to the lymph nodes. These are done by the ______ cells, the most potent antigen presenting cell. In the lymph nodes there is __ cell and __ cell activations. This makes antibodies and _____ T Cells.

- Dendritic
- T + B
- Cytotoxic

4

The dendritic cell is a member of the ___ club and interactions with other cells cause the plasma cell to produce antibodies. Another interaction causes cell apoptosis (cell suicide).

- APC (antigen presenting cells)

5

What is 'Antigen'?

- Anything that has the potential to be recognised by the immune system
- Foreign antigen (transplants, pathogens, some chemicals). Anything from 'outside'. e.g pollen.
- Auto-antigen: Immune system normally tolerant of auto (self) antigen. May be recognised in autoimmune disorders. (Type I Diabetes, Rheumatoid Arthritis)

6

Purpose of antigen uptake:

- Clearance of pathogens (innate response)
- For presentation to T Cells (adaptive response)

7

What encourages other cells to respond to infection?

- Peptides loaded onto MHC molecules for immune surveillance
- Presents fragment of antigen on MHC molecules (in the form of peptides)
- Know that it's bad if the sequence is different to ones found in the body

8

Where is MHC present? What's the difference between the two MHC types?

- MHC-I presents intracellular antigen. Antigens produced inside the cell. Expressed on all nucleated cells.
- MHC-II presents extracellular antigen. Expressed only on antigen presenting cells.

9

Describe the MHC structure:

- Peptide-binding cleft (peptide usually held there by weak electrostatic forces for a few hours or days)
- 4 proteins, 1 is embedded in membrane

10

What do T Cells do to those with MHC on them?

- Inspect and decide whether to take action

11

MHC-I antigen processing:

- Antigenic proteins are degraded to peptides in cytoplasm
- Peptides are imported into endoplasmic reticulum
- Peptide loading takes place in the ER

12

Phagocytosis occurs with MHC-__ molecules.

- II
- Phagolysosome sent to cell membrane (MHC waving around for T-Cells to view)
- Destruction of exogenous pathogen in acidic phagolysosome
- Peptide loading of MHC-II takes place in phagolysosome.

13

Summary:

- Subsets of WBC's mediate the immune response
- Antigen (self or foreign) is anything that an immune system recognises
- Peptides are fragments of protein antigen that are displayed by MHC-I and MHC-II on cells
- Endogenous antigens = MHC-I
- Exogenous antigens = MHC-II