Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 1-3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 1-3 Deck (89):
1

Microbial Growth = Microbial __________

Reproduction

2

Reproduction by bacterial cells is called __________

Binary Fission

3

Binary Fission:
This means that a single parent cell will divide __________ forming 2 __________ cells

-asexually
-daughter

4

The daughter cells are __________ identical to the __________ cell

-genetically
-parent

5

The time that it takes for binary fission to occur is called __________

generation time (G.T.)

6

-generation time (G.T.)-

This type of growth where the population doubles every generation is called __________

exponential growth

7

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (BSL3) has a generation time of ___ hours- -slow growing

12

8

As G.T. __________ (long)------Growth rate __________ (slow)

-increases
-decreases

9

As G.T. increases (__________) -----> Growth rate decreases (__________)

-long
-slow

10

As G.T. increases (long)------Growth rate decreases (slow) - [long=slow G.T - __________ ]

refrigerated

11

As G.T. decreases (short)----Growth rate increases (fast) - [short=fast G.T. - __________ ]

room temperature or hotter

12

As G.T. decreases (__________) --> Growth rate increase (__________)

-short
-fast

13

__________ will affect generation time.

Temperature

14

As __________ decreases----G.T. increases-----Growth rate decreases

temperature

15

As temperature decreases----G.T. increases-----Growth rate __________

decreases

16

Low temperature has a __________ effect not a bactericidal effect.

bacteriostatic

17

Low temperature has a bacteriostatic effect not a __________ effect.

bactericidal

18

__________ : something that will inhibit bacterial growth without killing (low temperature)

Bacteriostatic

19

__________ : something that will kill bacteria (very high temperature)

Bactericidal

20

Bactericidal: something that will kill bacteria (__________ temperature)

very high

21

Bacteriostatic: something that will inhibit bacterial growth without killing (__________ temperature)

low

22

Refrigeration should be used for __________ term storage.

short

23

Deep freeze can be used for __________ term storage.

long

24

Freezing temperatures make bacteria __________

dormant

25

To __________ food, means to leave food out at the wrong temperature for too long of a time period.

temperature abuse

26

The recommendation to thaw food is to thaw it in the __________, or defrost it in the __________

-refrigerator
-microwave

27

The microwave __________ an effective means for killing bacteria

is not

28

I.D. = __________

Infectious dose

29

L.D. = __________

Lethal dose

30

__________ : the minimum amount of a microbe that it takes to cause an infection

I.D. = Infectious dose

31

__________ : the minimum amount of a microbe or minimum amount of toxin that it takes to kill

L.D. = Lethal dose

32

As L.D. or I.D. __________ --> increase the __________ of the microbe

-decreases
-virulence

33

The most __________ microbes have very __________ infectious doses or lethal doses

-virulent
-low

34

Don’t eat food that is left out for too long because there is a __________ to get disease-

POTENTIAL

35

Reasons food can be left out and you don’t get sick:
- __________ - you developed immunity to the microbes
- There are no __________ in the food

-immune system
-pathogens

36

__________ : a known quantity of bacteria is added to broth. The lid is put on the tube, and from that point until the end of the experiment nothing is added to the broth nor is anything taken out

Closed system

37

Closed system: a known quantity of bacteria is added to __________. The lid is put on the tube, and from that point until the end of the experiment nothing is __________ to the broth nor is anything taken out

-broth
-added

38

-Closed system-
The population of bacteria moves through 4 stages:

-
-
-Stationary phase
-Death phase

-Lag phase
-Log phase

39

-Closed system-
The population of bacteria moves through 4 stages:

-Lag phase
-Log phase
-
-

-Stationary phase
-Death phase

40

-Closed system-

__________ phase : no reproduction but the cells are adjusting to their new environment;
Getting ready to reproduce

Lag

41

-Closed system-
Lag phase: no reproduction but the cells are adjusting to their new __________ ;
Getting ready to __________

-environment
-reproduce

42

-Closed system-
__________ phase: also called the exponential phase. This is the phase where reproduction is at a maximum. Generation time is at a minimum.

Log

43

-Closed system-
Log phase: also called the __________ phase. This is the phase where reproduction is at a __________. Generation time is at a minimum.

-exponential
-maximum

44

-Closed system-
__________ phase: The curve levels off because the rate of reproduction is balanced out by the rate of cell death. The occurs because of 2 factors
Depletion of nutrients
Buildup of organic waste

Stationary

45

-Closed system-
Stationary phase: The curve levels off because the rate of reproduction is balanced out by the rate of cell __________. The occurs because of 2 factors
-Depletion of nutrients
-Buildup of organic waste

-death
-

46

-Closed system-
Stationary phase: The curve levels off because the rate of reproduction is balanced out by the rate of cell death. The occurs because of 2 factors
-Depletion of __________
-Buildup of __________ waste

-nutrients
-organic

47

-Closed system-
__________ phase: The rate of cell dying is now greater than the rate of new cells being formed.
-Nutrients are completely depleted
-Too much organic waste is formed

Death

48

-Closed system-
Death phase: The rate of cell __________ is now greater than the rate of new __________ being formed.
-Nutrients are completely depleted
-Too much organic waste is formed

-dying
-cells

49

-Closed system-
Death phase: The rate of cell dying is now greater than the rate of new cells being formed.
-Nutrients are completely __________
-__________ organic waste is formed

-depleted
-Too much

50

2 Genera of bacteria will not reach zero at the end of death phase. These are __________ and __________.

-Bacillus
-Clostridium

51

2 Genera of bacteria will not reach zero at the end of death phase. These are Bacillus and Clostridium. Species of these organisms have __________, which remain in a __________ state.

-endospores
-dormant

52

Phases of Growth for an open system:

__________ phase
__________ phase

-Lag
-Log

53

-Open system-

__________ phase: no reproduction but the cells are adjusting to their new environment; getting ready to reproduce (newborns)

Lag

54

-Open system-

__________ phase: also called the exponential phase. This is the phase where reproduction is at a maximum. Generation time is at a minimum

Log

55

-Open system-

Lag phase: no reproduction but the cells are __________ to their new environment; getting ready to reproduce (__________)

-adjusting
-newborns

56

-Open system-

Log phase: also called the __________ phase. This is the phase where reproduction is at a maximum. __________ time is at a minimum.

-exponential
-Generation

57

There is no stationary or death phase in an __________ system since there is always more __________ added, and there is no buildup of waste.

-open
-nutrients

58

Our __________ is an example of an open system

intestinal tract

59

__________ : Bacteria in the blood i.e. This occurs after brushing teeth, Equivalent to lag phase of growth

Bacteremia

60

Bacteremia: Bacteria in the blood i.e. This occurs after brushing __________, Equivalent to __________ phase of growth

-teeth
-lag

61

__________ : Bacteria growing in the blood. Equivalent to log/exponential phase of growth

Septicemia

62

Septicemia: Bacteria growing in the blood. Equivalent to __________ phase of growth

log/exponential

63

__________ : Virus found in the blood
AIDS results in viremia with high mortality
Chickenpox results in viremia with low mortality

Viremia

64

Viremia: Virus found in the blood
__________ results in viremia with __________ mortality
Chickenpox results in viremia with low mortality

-AIDS
-high

65

Viremia: Virus found in the blood
AIDS results in viremia with high mortality
__________ results in viremia with __________ mortality

-Chickenpox
-low

66

__________ period: time period from the initial contact with the microbe, to the time period just before the first appearance of the first signs/symptoms.

Incubation

67

Incubation period: time period from the initial contact with the __________, to the time period just before the first appearance of the first __________.

-microbe
-signs/symptoms

68

Incubation period: There are no signs/symptoms during this stage. (ideal time to treat __________) (can be a __________ here)

-rabies
-carrier

69

__________ period: Time period when there are mild signs/symptoms. The signs/symptoms during this stage are subjective and it is difficult for physicians to diagnose a specific disease during this stage.

Prodromal

70

Prodromal period: Time period when there are __________ signs/symptoms. The signs/symptoms during this stage are __________ and it is difficult for physicians to diagnose a specific disease during this stage.

-mild
-subjective

71

Prodromal period: Time period when there are mild signs/symptoms. The signs/symptoms during this stage are subjective and it is difficult for physicians to __________ a specific __________ during this stage.

-diagnose
-disease

72

__________ period: Overt signs/symptoms. This is also known as the period of illness. Disease is most likely to be diagnosed during this stage.

Invasion

73

Invasion period: Overt signs/symptoms. This is also known as the period of __________. Disease is __________ to be diagnosed during this stage.

-illness
-most likely

74

__________ period: Signs/symptoms begin to subside.

Decline

75

Decline period: Signs/symptoms begin to __________.

subside

76

__________ period: Period of recovery. There are no signs/symptoms during this stage. (can be a carrier here)

Convalescent

77

Convalescent period: Period of recovery. There are __________ signs/symptoms during this stage. (can be a __________ here)

-no
-carrier

78

__________ stage: dormant stage. Infection cannot be transmitted from person-person
-Can go into Reactivation, sending it back into stage 1 Incubation (not reinfected, just reactivated)

Latent

79

Latent stage: dormant stage. Infection __________ be transmitted from person-person
-Can go into __________, sending it back into stage 1 Incubation (not reinfected, just reactivated)

-cannot
-Reactivation

80

Latent stage: dormant stage. Infection cannot be transmitted from person-person
-Can go into Reactivation, sending it back into stage 1 Incubation (not __________, just __________)

-reinfected
-reactivated

81

-Can not distinguish between incubation, __________, and latent

-convalescent

82

-Can not distinguish between __________, convalescent, and __________

-incubation
-latent

83

All herpes viruses are __________ viruses

latent

84

__________ - treatment is vaccination - Treatment is based on presumption of exposure

Rabies

85

-Rabies - treatment is vaccination - Treatment is based on presumption of __________

exposure

86

__________ can be transmitted during any of the 5 stages of infection/disease

Infection

87

-5 stages of infection/disease-

1.
2. Prodromal
3.
4. Decline
5. Convalescent

1. Incubation
3. Invasion

88

-5 stages of infection/disease-

1. Incubation
2.
3. Invasion
4.
5. Convalescent

2. Prodromal
4. Decline

89

-5 stages of infection/disease-

1. Incubation
2. Prodromal
3. Invasion
4. Decline
5.

5. Convalescent