Lab 1 Exam - Terminology / Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lab 1 Exam - Terminology / Questions Deck (136):
1

__________ : Plastic plate in which Agar is placed

Petri plate

2

__________ : Food for the organism

Culture Media

3

__________ : Solid culture media (gel in media)

Agar

4

__________ : is also a generic term used to describe any food for a microbe

Agar

5

__________ : grow on the surface of the agar

Microbes

6

Agar plates are __________ when not in use. and the label goes on the __________

-Upside down
-Backside

7

__________ : Population of microbes growing on the surface of the agar

Colony

8

__________ : Liquid culture media

Broth

9

__________ : Cloudy: broth ________ Indicates microbe are growing in the media

-Turbid
-Turbidity

10

__________ : Destroy all life (microbes)

Sterilize

11

__________ : Free of all life (microbes)

Sterile

12

__________ : A chamber in which steam asunder pressure: used to sterilize material in microbiology

Autoclave

13

__________ : Chamber set at a specific temperature. This is where the inoculated agar plates and tubes containing broth are placed to grow cultures

Incubator

14

__________ : Techniques to avoid contamination

Aseptic techniques

15

__________ : To introduce or transfer microbes into "something" such as culture media

Inoculate

16

__________ : Ocular Magnification X Objective Magnification

Total Magnification

17

Total Magnification : __________ Magnification X __________ Magnification

-Ocular
-Objective

18

Ocular Magnification is __X

10

19

Objective magnification is the __________

Lens choice

20

__________ : Automatic focusing

Parfocal

21

__________ : The area viewed through the ocular lens

Field of view

22

__________ : The distance between the end of the objective lens and the slide

Working distance

23

__________ : Ability to see detail: Clarity

Resolution

24

__________ : Adjustments in the distance between the ocular lenses to fit the eyes of the user

Interpupillary Adjustment

25

Two ways to control light intensity are:

-On/Off Intensity regulator
-Iris Diaphragm

26

-Focusing Procedure - Shortcut-

1.
2.
3. Adjust the light regulator control to as bright as possible
4. Move low power objective into position
5. Adjust the coarse focus knob so the low power lens is as close as possible to the stage

1. Plug the Microscope in and turn it on
2. Close the iris diaphragm

27

-Focusing Procedure - Shortcut-

1. Plug the Microscope in and turn it on
2. Close the iris diaphragm
3.
4.
5. Adjust the coarse focus knob so the low power lens is as close as possible to the stage

3. Adjust the light regulator control to as bright as possible
4. Move low power objective into position

28

-Focusing Procedure - Shortcut-

1. Plug the Microscope in and turn it on
2. Close the iris diaphragm
3. Adjust the light regulator control to as bright as possible
4. Move low power objective into position
5.

5. Adjust the coarse focus knob so the low power lens is as close as possible to the stage

29

Objective Lens Power:

Scanning Power = __X

4

30

Objective Lens Power:

Low Power = __X

10

31

Objective Lens Power:

High Dry Power = __X

40

32

Objective Lens Power:

Oil Immersion = __X

100

33

Objective Lens Band Color:

Oil Immersion = __________

White

34

Objective Lens Band Color:

High Dry Power = __________

Blue

35

Objective Lens Band Color:

Low Power = __________

Yellow

36

Objective Lens Band Color:

Scanning Power = __________

Red

37

4 examples of Aseptic techniques:

1.
2. Flaming the mouth of a test tube
3. Not completely taking off the top of an agar plate
4. Wearing gloves, lab coat, and disinfecting the lab bench

Flaming the loop/needle

38

4 examples of Aseptic techniques:

1. Flaming the loop/needle
2.
3. Not completely taking off the top of an agar plate
4. Wearing gloves, lab coat, and disinfecting the lab bench

Flaming the mouth of a test tube

39

4 examples of Aseptic techniques:

1. Flaming the loop/needle
2. Flaming the mouth of a test tube
3.
4. Wearing gloves, lab coat, and disinfecting the lab bench

Not completely taking off the top of an agar plate

40

4 examples of Aseptic techniques:

1. Flaming the loop/needle
2. Flaming the mouth of a test tube
3. Not completely taking off the top of an agar plate
4.

Wearing gloves, lab coat, and disinfecting the lab bench

41

Why is it important that petri plates be incubated upside down?

So the condensation does not drip down onto the agar

42

How many times should the mouth of a test-tube be flamed after the lid is taken off?

3

43

Why should the mouth of the test-tube be flamed when the lid is taken off?

To prevent contaminants

44

Why is it important that after being flamed, a loop must be cooled before it is used to perform an inoculation?

-So you don't kill the bacteria
-Dont create aerosols

45

How would you determine which area on an agar was the most contaminated?

The area with the most colonies

46

How can you determine if different types of microbes are growing on the sampled area of an agar?

Different Colony Morphology

47

What types of microbes are growing on the PDA plate?

Yeast and Mold

48

What types of microbes are growing on the TSA plate?

Bacteria

49

Parts of a Dissecting Microscope:

-
-
-Head
-Ocular Lens
-Magnification Knob

-Base
-Focusing Knob

50

Parts of a Dissecting Microscope:

-Base
-Focusing Knob
-
-
-Magnification Knob

-Head
-Ocular Lens

51

Parts of a Dissecting Microscope:

-Base
-Focusing Knob
-Head
-Ocular Lens
-

-Magnification Knob

52

Highest total magnification that can be reached with a Dissecting Microscope is ___X

300X

53

Magnification of the magnification knob on a dissecting microscope is ____X

7-30

54

The dissecting microscope in Microbiology is used to?

Determine colony morphology

55

In what fields of biology would a dissecting microscope be used?

Microbiology - to see colonies

56

Bacterial cells can be classified as being either __________ or __________

-Monomorphic
-Pleomorphic

57

Monomorphic cells have __________

Single Shape

58

Pleomorphic cells have __________

Variable forms

59

-Bacterial Shapes-

__________ : Spherical Shape

Coccus

60

-Bacterial Shapes-

__________ : Rod shape

Bacillus

61

-Bacterial Shapes-

__________ : Oval Shape

Coccobacillus

62

-Bacterial Shapes-

__________ : Comma shape

Vibrio

63

-Bacterial Shapes-

__________ : Spiral shape

Spirillum

64

-Bacterial Shapes-

__________ : Spiral shape: longer and more tightly coiled than the spiral shape of a Spirillum

Spirochete

65

-Bacterial Shapes-

Bacillus : Rod shape

i.
ii.

i. Short bacilli
ii. Long bacilli

66

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Cocci-

__________ : pair of cocci

Diplococcus

67

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Cocci-

__________ : chain of cocci

Streptococcus

68

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Cocci-

__________ : cluster of cocci

Staphylococcus

69

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Cocci-

__________ : cocci in groups of 4

Tetrad

70

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Bacilli-

__________ : pair of rods

Diplobacillus

71

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Bacilli-

__________ : chain of rods

Streptobacillus

72

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Bacilli-

__________ : rods lined up parallel to one another, also known as a picket fence arrangement. V-shape

Palisade

73

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Bacilli-

__________ : rods that have no grouping pattern; Bacilli with no arrangement

Irregular

74

-Bacterial Grouping Patterns - Bacilli-

Irregular : rods that have no grouping pattern; Bacilli with no arrangement

-Not a __________
-None of those in __________

-Cluster
-Rods

75

What is the purpose of doing a quadrant streak?

To isolate a pure culture (colonies)

76

After a quadrant streak has been completed, how will you know the the technique has been done correctly?

There will be isolated colonies in the fourth quadrant

77

__________ : The bacterial cell has been stained, but the excess dye has been washed off the cell resulting in colored cells against a colorless background

Positive Staining technique

78

A positive staining technique can be classified as either __________ or __________

-Simple
-Differential

79

A __________ staining technique uses only one dye

Simple

80

A __________ staining technique uses more than one dye

differential

81

A __________ staining technique results in colorless cells against a colored background

negative

82

Whats the purpose of doing a heat-fixed smear?

To isolate a pure culture

83

What is the purpose of making a heat-fixed smear?

To fix the bacteria to the slide

84

Two examples of aseptic techniques that are used when making a heat-fixed smear are:

-
-

-Flaming the loop
-Not taking the lid off the agar plate

85

Why must the smear be as thin as possible?

So the stain comes out correctly

86

Why must a heat fixed smear be made before the staining technique is performed?

So you don't wash the bacteria off the slide

87

Some morphological characteristics of bacteria that can be determined by doing a simple stain are:

Shape and grouping pattern

88

Why must the smear be dried by blotting the slide rather than rubbing it dry?

So you don't wipe the bacteria off the slide

89

-Gram Stain-

Primary stain : __________

Crystal violet

90

-Gram Stain-

Mordant : __________

Iodine

91

-Gram Stain-

Decolorizing agent : __________

Ethyl alcohol

92

-Gram Stain-

Secondary stain / Counter stain : __________

Safranin

93

Factors that can adversely affect the Gram reaction of a bacterial culture include:

1.
2. Over heating while making a heat fixed smear
3. Making the smear too thick
4. Not following the exact times that the dyes must remain on the smear

The age of the culture

94

Factors that can adversely affect the Gram reaction of a bacterial culture include:

1. The age of the culture
2.
3. Making the smear too thick
4. Not following the exact times that the dyes must remain on the smear

Over heating while making a heat fixed smear

95

Factors that can adversely affect the Gram reaction of a bacterial culture include:

1. The age of the culture
2. Over heating while making a heat fixed smear
3.
4. Not following the exact times that the dyes must remain on the smear

Making the smear too thick

96

Factors that can adversely affect the Gram reaction of a bacterial culture include:

1. The age of the culture
2. Over heating while making a heat fixed smear
3. Making the smear too thick
4.

Not following the exact times that the dyes must remain on the smear

97

What color will Gram positive bacteria stain if the iodine step is skipped during the Gram staining procedure?

Pink

98

What color would Gram positive bacterium be stained if the decolorizing agent is left on the slide for too long of a time period?

Pink

99

What color would a Gram negative bacterium be observed as, if the Gram staining procedure was stopped after crystal violet was added to the smear?

Purple

100

__________ stain : Malachite green (stains endospores)

Primary

101

Primary stain : Malachite green (stains __________ )

endospores

102

__________ stain : Safranin (stains the vegetative cells)

Secondary

103

Secondary stain : Safranin (stains __________)

the vegetative cells

104

What is the name of the primary stain and the counter-stain in the endospore staining technique?

Primary stain - Malachite Green
Secondary stain - Safranin

105

What color would the vegetative cell be if safranin was not added to the smear?

Colorless

106

-Acid-Fast Stain-

Primary stain : __________

Carbol fuchsin

107

-Acid-Fast Stain-

Decolorizing agent : __________

Acid alcohol

108

-Acid-Fast Stain-

Secondary stain : __________

Methylene blue

109

__________ has wax in its cell wall, and is Acid-Fast (+) --> fuchsia

Mycobacterium

110

Mycobacterium has wax in its cell wall, and is Acid-Fast (+) --> __________

fuchsia

111

All other __________ in class are Acid-fast (-) --> blue

bacteria

112

All other bacteria in class are Acid-fast (-) --> __________

blue

113

2 diseases that are caused by acid-fast bacilli:

-TB
-Leprosy

114

Why will E. coli not stain fuchsia (red/purple) after being acid-fast stained?

Because it has no wax in its cell wall

115

What color would a species of Mycobacterium be stained if acid-alcohol was used for too long a time period?

Blue

116

Why was it difficult to smear the Mycobacterium smegmatis culture when making a heat-fixed smear?

The wax makes it sticky

117

-Negative Stain for Capsules-

Capsules protect bacteria from?

Phagocytosis

118

-Negative Stain for Capsules-

What dye is used in the staining technique to see capsules?

Nigrosin

119

-Negative Stain for Capsules-

Why was the slide not heat-fixed?

Heat destroys capsules

120

-Negative Stain for Capsules-

Why is the capsule/negative stain a type of simple stain?

only one dye is used

121

-Negative Stain for Capsules-

How does a capsule increase bacterial virulence?

Protects the bacteria from Phagocytosis

122

-Negative Stain for Capsules-

Why would capsules not be observed if Klebsiella pneumoniae is Gram stained?

because you have to heat fix to gram stain and heat destroys capsules

123

What is the main function of metachromatic granules?

to store phosphate

124

What bacterium has metachromatic granules?

Corynebacterium

125

Why is the metachromatic granule stain a type of simple stain?

Only one dye is used

126

What is the function of flagella?

Move the bacteria

127

What is meant by the term motile?

Can move

128

What is meant by the term nonmotile?

Can not move

129

__________ is a motile organism

E. coli

130

__________ is a nonmotile organism

Micrococcus

131

What is the advantage of doing a wet mount?

It's fast

132

What is the disadvantage of doing a wet mount?

Not recommended for pathogens

133

What is the advantage of using the culture method?

Recommended for pathogens

134

What is the disadvantage of using the culture method?

24 hours to see results

135

-Wet mount in iodine-

__________ is reproduction in yeast

Budding

136

What procedure was done to observe budding, and a nucleus?

Wet Mount in Iodine