Lecture Exam 1 - Notes: pages 1-6 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology 156 > Lecture Exam 1 - Notes: pages 1-6 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture Exam 1 - Notes: pages 1-6 Deck (90):
1

_________ : study of microbes

Microbiology

2

_________ : any living organism that is too small to be seen with the naked eye.

Microbe

3

_________ : are too small to be seen without the aid of a microscope

Microscopic organisms

4

_________ : can be seen without the aid of a microscope

Macroscopic organisms

5

_________ : study of Bacteria

Bacteriology

6

_________ : study of Viruses

Virology

7

Virology: study of Viruses

These are the smallest of all _________

microbes

8

Virology: study of Viruses

Viruses are not considered to be _________
Viruses are referred to as being _________

-alive or dead
-active or inactive

9

Virology: study of Viruses

Active~_________ ; an active virus could cause disease

alive

10

Virology: study of Viruses

Inactive~_________ ; an inactive virus cannot cause disease

dead

11

Inactive~dead; an inactive virus _________ cause disease

cannot

12

Active~ alive; an active virus _________ cause disease

could

13

_________ : study of Fungi (yeast, mold & mushrooms)

Mycology

14

-Mycology-

Yeast and Mold are _________ fungi

microscopic

15

-Mycology-

Mushrooms are _________ fungi

macroscopic

16

_________ : study of Algae i.e. Seaweed

Phycology

17

_________ : study of Protozoa

Protozoology

18

_________ : study of Parasites (Worms = Helminthes)

Parasitology

19

_________ : study of the immune chemicals and cells that are produced in response to infection

Immunology

20

Public Health _________ and _________: Monitor and control the spread of diseases in communities. The main agency is the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

-Microbiology
-Epidemiology

21

Public Health Microbiology and Epidemiology: Monitor and control the spread of diseases in communities. The main agency is the CDC (_________ )

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

22

_________ : includes any process in which humans use the metabolism of living things to arrive at a desired product

Biotechnology

23

_________ : techniques that alter the genetic makeup of organisms to mass produce chemicals such as human hormones, drugs, etc

Genetic engineering

24

_________ : science of classification

Taxonomy

25

_________ :

Animalia: animals -Parasitology
Plantae: plants - Phycology
Protista: protozoa - Protozoology
Fungi: yeast, mold, and mushrooms - Mycology
Monera: bacteria - Bacteriology

5 kingdom classification system

26

-5 kingdom classification system-

_________ : animals -Parasitology

Animalia

27

-5 kingdom classification system-

Animalia: animals - _________

Parasitology

28

-5 kingdom classification system-

_________ : plants - Phycology

Plantae

29

-5 kingdom classification system-

Plantae: plants - _________

Phycology

30

-5 kingdom classification system-

_________ : protozoa - Protozoology

Protista

31

-5 kingdom classification system-

Protista: protozoa - _________

Protozoology

32

-5 kingdom classification system-

_________ : yeast, mold, and mushrooms - Mycology

Fungi

33

-5 kingdom classification system-

Fungi: yeast, mold, and mushrooms - _________

Mycology

34

-5 kingdom classification system-

_________ : bacteria - Bacteriology

Monera

35

-5 kingdom classification system-

Monera: bacteria - _________

Bacteriology

36

-3 domain system-

_________ : Ancient bacteria (extremophiles)

Archaea

37

-3 domain system-

_________ : True bacteria

Eubacteria

38

-3 domain system-

_________ : All other living organisms

Eucarya

39

-Archaea: Ancient bacteria (extremophiles)-

_________ : grown best in an environment containing methane gas

Methanogens

40

-Archaea: Ancient bacteria (extremophiles)-

_________ : require a high salt concentration to grow

Obligate Halophile

41

-Archaea: Ancient bacteria (extremophiles)-

_________ : grow best in environments that have very high temperatures

Hyperthermophiles

42

_________ - Are not classified as they are not alive

Viruses

43

Binomial System of _________ (2 word naming system)

Nomenclature

44

_________ : developed the Binomial System of Nomenclature (2 word naming system)

Linnaeus

45

Binomial System of Nomenclature (2 word naming system)

The first word is called the _________ ; the second is called the _________

-genus
-species

46

When letters/numbers are written after the species name they refer to the _________ type of the _________

-strain
-bacterium

47

_________ are known as variations within a species

Strains

48

_________ : disease causing organism

Pathogen (pathogenic)

49

_________ : organism that Normally does not cause disease

Nonpathogen (nonpathogenic)

50

_________ : a non-pathogen that will take advantage of an “opportunity” to cause disease

Opportunistic organism

51

Nonpathogenic------ ________ ---Pathogenic

reversion

52

Every _________ is an Opportunistic organism

Non-pathogen

53

_________ : Degree of pathogenicity

Virulence

54

_________ :
Usually refers to the ability of individual strains or isolates from clinical samples to produce disease

Virulence

55

_________ : can cause disease; a virulent organism is pathogenic

Virulent

56

_________ : does not cause disease; an avirulent organism is nonpathogenic

Avirulent

57

The majority of microbes are _________ .

nonpathogenic

58

BSL = _________

Biosafety Level

59

Biosafety Level ___

Microbes not generally considered to be pathogens (non-pathogens)
Microbiology teaching labs

1

60

Biosafety Level ___

Moderate potential to infect. Can cause disease in healthy people, but can be contained with proper facilities. Most pathogens fall into this class.

2

61

Biosafety Level ___

Microbes that can cause severe disease when inhaled such as
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) and Yersinia pestis (Bubonic plague)
HIV

3

62

Biosafety Level ___

Highly virulent microbes
Extreme risk of infection and death
Close to 100% mortality rate, no treatment, and no vaccine i.e. Ebola virus

4

63

Microbes can be used to produce _________

food

64

Any _________ food or beverage is a product of microbial growth

fermented

65

The microbes used to start the fermentation are called _________ cultures

starter

66

The microbes growing in the fermented food are called _________ cultures

active

67

Bread
Beer
Wine
Sauerkraut
Pickles
Vinegar
Cheese
Yogurt

These are all:

active cultures

68

Microbes can be used as food

Seaweed
_________ : used as a protein supplement in animal feed

Single Cell Protein

69

_________ : naturally produced by microbes; will kill or inhibit the growth of other microbes

Antibiotics

70

_________ = Against life

Antibiotics

71

_________ :
Plays a role in blood clotting

Vitamin K

72

Vitamin K:
Naturally produced by the _________ in our G.I tract.

E. coli

73

E. coli is an _________ microbe

enteric

74

_________ = Intestinal

Enteric

75

Newborns are given Vitamin __ soon after birth as a preventative against _________ Disease Newborn

-K
-Hemorrhagic

76

Adults don’t need to be given Vitamin K since adults have high level of _________ in their G.I. tract

E. coli

77

_________ thuringiensis is a bacterium that is naturally found in soil
It is nonpathogenic to humans but is pathogenic to insects

Bacillus

78

Bacillus thuringiensis produces crystals that are toxic to certain _________ , but are not toxic to _________

-insects
-humans

79

Commercial dusts are now on the market containing freeze-dried Bacillus thuringiensis.
This is known as a _________

biopesticide

80

_________ : manipulation of DNA, recombinant products

Genetic engineering

81

_________ products = Product of genetic engineering

recombinant

82

-Genetic engineering-

_________ : used by diabetics

Insulin

83

-Genetic engineering-

_________ : treatment for dwarfism

Growth hormone

84

-Genetic engineering-

_________ : blood clotting protein; treatment for hemophilia

Factor VIII

85

_________ : plants containing the Bt toxin gene

Bt plants

86

Bt = bacillus _________

thuringiensis

87

_________ = Genetically Modified Organism

GMO

88

GMO = Genetically Modified Organism
-Comes from a _________

microbe

89

_________ :
using microbes to clean up pollutants
Bacteria genetically engineered to clean up oil spills

Bioremediation

90

_________:

Prevent pollution
Recycle as drinking water

Sewage treatment