Final Exam - Notes: pages 13-19 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam - Notes: pages 13-19 Deck (90):
1

Disease: _________: disease of the gastrointestinal system

Etiology: Vibrio cholerae

Cholera

2

Disease: Cholera: disease of the _________ system

Etiology: Vibrio cholerae

gastrointestinal

3

Disease: Cholera: disease of the gastrointestinal system

Etiology: _________ cholerae

Vibrio

4

-Disease: _________ -

produces enterotoxin called choleragen which causes the body to lose water and electrolytes

Cholera

5

-Disease: Cholera-

produces enterotoxin called _________ which causes the body to lose water and _________

-choleragen
-electrolytes

6

-Disease: Cholera-

toxin is heat _________ - (heat can _________ the toxin)

-labile
-inactivate

7

-Disease: _________ -

Reservoir:
Nonliving (saltwater, freshwater)
Some humans are carriers (enteric)

Cholera

8

-Disease: Cholera-

Reservoir:
_________ (saltwater, freshwater)
Some humans are _________ (enteric)

-Nonliving
-carriers

9

-Disease: _________ -

Mode of Transmission: fecal-oral
-foodborne; in America eating raw shellfish
-waterborne

Cholera

10

-Disease: Cholera-

Mode of Transmission: _________
-foodborne; in America eating raw shellfish
- _________

-fecal-oral
-waterborne

11

-Disease: _________ -

Prodromal: vomiting, cramps, diarrhea
Invasion: rice water stool

Cholera

12

-Disease: Cholera-

_________ : vomiting, cramps, diarrhea
Invasion: _________ water stool

-Prodromal
-rice

13

-Disease: _________ -

High mortality rate due to massive loss of fluid and electrolytes

Cholera

14

-Disease: _________ -

Treatment:
-I.V. fluid and electrolyte replacement reduces mortality
-Antibiotics

Cholera

15

-Disease: Cholera-

Treatment:
-I.V. fluid and _________ replacement reduces mortality
- _________

-electrolyte
-Antibiotics

16

-Disease: Cholera-

Prevention:
_________ food
Boil water
_________

-Cook
-Vaccine

17

-Disease: Cholera-

Miscellaneous:
There have been 7 _________ of this disease since the early 1800’s
Currently there is an epidemic in _________

-pandemics
-Haiti

18

Disease: _________ : Legionnaires’ disease

Etiology: Legionella pneumophila

Legionellosis

19

Disease: Legionellosis: _________’ disease

Etiology: Legionella pneumophila

Legionnaires

20

Disease: Legionellosis: Legionnaires’ disease

Etiology: Legionella _________

pneumophila

21

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Reservoir: _________

Nonliving: water

22

-Disease: _________ -

Reservoir:
Nonliving: water
-The microbe is avirulent in natural bodies of water
-The microbe becomes virulent in hot water

Legionellosis

23

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Reservoir:
Nonliving: water
-The microbe is _________ in natural bodies of water
-The microbe becomes _________ in hot water

-avirulent
-virulent

24

-Disease: _________ -

Mode of Transmission:
-Airborne aerosols from cooling towers, showers, faucets, hot tubs etc.
-No known human to human transmission--noncommunicable

Legionellosis

25

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Mode of Transmission:
-Airborne _________ from cooling towers, showers, faucets, hot tubs etc.
-No known human to human transmission-- _________

-aerosols
-noncommunicable

26

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Signs & Symptoms: Usually causes a _________ infection unless the person is compromised

subclinical

27

-Disease: Legionellosis-
_________ --Fever, chills, muscle aches, headache, fatigue, diarrhea—misdiagnosed as influenza

Prodromal

28

-Disease: Legionellosis-

_________ --renal failure chest x-rays often show pneumonia

Invasion

29

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Prodromal--Fever, _________, muscle aches, headache, fatigue, diarrhea—misdiagnosed as _________

-chills
-influenza

30

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Invasion-- _________ failure chest x-rays often show _________

-renal
-pneumonia

31

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Legionnaires’ _________ cannot be distinguished from other types of pneumonia from _________ alone.

-pneumonia
-signs/symptoms

32

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Treatment: _________ : must be specific for _________’ disease

-Antibiotics
-Legionnaires

33

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Prevention:
-Test and _________ systems with disinfectants ( _________ )

-water
-Hyperchlorination

34

-Disease: _________ -

Prevention:
-Test and treat water systems with disinfectants (Hyperchlorination)

Legionellosis

35

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Prevention:
To prevent _________ (hospital related) Legionnaire’s disease, the CDC recommends that hospitals test and treat their water systems only _________ there have been 1 one or two cases of the disease.

-nosocomial
-after

36

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Risk factors (predisposing factors)
- _________
->65 years old
- _________ smoking
-Immunocompromised

-Male
-Cigarette

37

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Risk factors (predisposing factors)
- _________ abuse
-Organ transplantation (because they are given immunosuppressant drugs)
- _________
-Cancer

-Alcohol
-Emphysema

38

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Most outbreaks occur during the _________ due to air conditioning systems

-summertime

39

-Disease: Legionellosis-

_________ : This disease is a result of infection with Legionella with flu like signs/symptoms, but the disease does not progress to pneumonia. Usually misdiagnosed as Influenza.
-Most cases occur in the summertime

Pontiac fever

40

-Disease: Legionellosis-

Pontiac fever: This disease is a result of infection with Legionella with _________ signs/symptoms, but the disease does not progress to pneumonia. Usually misdiagnosed as _________.
-Most cases occur in the summertime

-flu like
-Influenza

41

Disease: _________

Etiology: E. coli O157:H7

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

42

Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

Etiology: _________ O157:H7

E. coli

43


-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Produces an exotoxin called the _________

Shiga toxin

44

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Reservoir: _________

Cows

45

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Mode of Transmission: _________

foodborne

46

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Mode of Transmission: foodborne

-Foods implicated in past outbreaks include: ground beef, _________ milk, unpasteurized juice, _________ sprouts, lettuce, spinach, _________

-unpasteurized
-alfalfa
-tomatoes

47

-Disease: _________ -

Signs & Symptoms:
most often severe bloody diarrhea and abdominal cramps

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

48

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Signs & Symptoms:
most often severe bloody _________ and abdominal _________

-diarrhea
-cramps

49

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Signs & Symptoms:
children under 5, _________, and the elderly progress to _________ uremic syndrome
--red blood cells are destroyed and kidneys fail

-immunocompromised
-Hemolytic

50

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Signs & Symptoms:
children under 5, immunocompromised, and the elderly progress to
Hemolytic uremic syndrome
-- _________ blood cells are destroyed and _________ fail

-red
-kidneys

51

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Treatment:
-For HUS _________ and blood transfusions are needed
- _________, Fluids

-dialysis
-Antibiotics

52

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Prevention:
-Cook meat especially _________ well-done (steak is not high risk)
-Avoid _________ when preparing food
-Drink only _________ milk, juice or cider

-hamburger
-cross-contamination
-pasteurized

53

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Prevention:
- _________ fruit and vegetables thoroughly
- _________ recommends that children

-Wash
-CDC
-alfalfa sprouts

54

-Disease: _________ -

Sequeale (after effects) of HUS include seizures, blindness, deafness, chronic kidney failure, neurological impairment

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

55

-Disease: Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome-

Sequeale (after effects) of HUS include seizures, blindness, _________, chronic kidney failure, _________ impairment

-deafness
-neurological

56

Disease: _________

Etiology: Salmonella typhimurium
Salmonella enteritidis

Salmonellosis

57

Disease: Salmonellosis

Etiology: Salmonella _________
Salmonella _________

-typhimurium
-enteritidis

58

-Disease: Salmonellosis-

Reservoir: _________ --Enteric

Animal

59

-Disease: _________ -

Reservoir: Animal--Enteric
-Poultry i.e. chicken, turkey, ducks
-Reptiles - Snakes, turtles, lizards
-Cows
-Pigs

Salmonellosis

60

-Disease: Salmonellosis-

Reservoir: Animal--Enteric
-Poultry i.e. chicken, turkey, ducks
- _________ - Snakes, turtles, lizards
-Cows
- _________

-Reptiles
-Pigs

61

-Disease: Salmonellosis-

Mode of Transmission:
- _________
- _________

-foodborne
-waterborne

62

-Disease: Salmonellosis-

Signs & Symptoms:
abdominal _________, fever, _________

-cramps
-diarrhea

63

-Disease: Salmonellosis-

Treatment:
- _________ Fluids.
-Antibiotics (many strains are drug _________)

-I.V.
-resistant

64

-Disease: Salmonellosis-

Prevention:
-Cook food
-Avoid _________
-Hand washing
-Don’t eat raw or undercooked eggs (found in yolk)
-Wash hands after handling _________

-cross-contamination
-reptiles

65

-Disease: _________ -

Sequelae:
A small number of infected people will go on to develop pain in their joints, irritation of the eyes,
and painful urination.
This is called Reiter’s syndrome.
It can last for months to years, and can lead to chronic arthritis

Salmonellosis

66

-Disease: Salmonellosis-

Sequelae:
A small number of infected people will go on to develop pain in their _________, irritation of the eyes,
and painful urination.
This is called _________ syndrome.
It can last for months to years, and can lead to chronic _________

-joints
-Reiter’s
-arthritis

67

-Disease: Salmonellosis-

Estimated incidence is over __ million with a mortality rate of _____/year

-6
-1000

68

Disease: _________
-Disease of the gastrointestinal tract
-Commonly misdiagnosed as Salmonellosis

Etiology: Campylobacter jejuni

Campylobacteriosis

69

Disease: Campylobacteriosis
-Disease of the _________ tract
-Commonly misdiagnosed as _________

Etiology: Campylobacter jejuni

-gastrointestinal
-Salmonellosis

70

Disease: Campylobacteriosis
-Disease of the gastrointestinal tract
-Commonly misdiagnosed as Salmonellosis

Etiology: Campylobacter _________

jejuni

71

-Disease: Campylobacteriosis-

Reservoir: _________ : especially _________ (one drop of juice from raw poultry can infect a person)

-Animal
-poultry

72

-Disease: Campylobacteriosis-

Mode of Transmission:
- _________
- _________

-foodborne
-waterborne

73

-Disease: Campylobacteriosis-

Signs & Symptoms:
-Most people get _________ (bloody), cramping, _________ pain, fever

-diarrhea
-abdominal

74

-Disease: Campylobacteriosis-

Treatment:
-I.V. _________
- _________

-fluids
-Antibiotics

75

-Disease: Campylobacteriosis-

Prevention:
-cook food
- _________ hands
-avoid cross contamination
-do not wash _________

-wash
-poultry

76

-Disease: Campylobacteriosis-

Sequelae:
-in rare cases people may have _________ following Campylobacteriosis
-others may develop _________-Barre syndrome (autoimmune disorder of the nervous system)

-arthritis
-Guillain

77

-Disease: _________ -

Sequelae:
-in rare cases people may have arthritis
-others may develop Guillain-Barre syndrome (autoimmune disorder of the nervous system)

Campylobacteriosis

78

Disease: _________ (Bacillary Dysentery)
-Dysentery is inflammation of the intestine resulting in diarrhea with blood

Etiology:
-Shigella sonnei (most cases in America are due to this species)
-Shigella flexneri
-Shigella dysenteriae type 1

Shigellosis

79

Disease: Shigellosis (_________)
-Dysentery is inflammation of the intestine resulting in diarrhea with blood

Etiology:
-Shigella sonnei (most cases in America are due to this species)
-Shigella flexneri
-Shigella dysenteriae type 1

Bacillary Dysentery

80

Disease: Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)
-Dysentery is inflammation of the _________ resulting in _________ with blood

Etiology:
-Shigella sonnei (most cases in America are due to this species)
-Shigella flexneri
-Shigella dysenteriae type 1

-intestine
-diarrhea

81

Disease: Shigellosis (Bacillary Dysentery)
-Dysentery is inflammation of the intestine resulting in diarrhea with blood

Etiology:
-Shigella _________ (most cases in America are due to this species)
-Shigella flexneri
-Shigella dysenteriae type 1

sonnei

82

-Disease: _________ -

produces the Shiga toxin -Just like E. coli 0157:H7

Shigellosis

83

-Disease: Shigellosis-

Reservoir: _________

Human (enteric)

84

-Disease: Shigellosis-

Mode of Transmission:
-Direct or indirect _________ (bacteria passing from stools or soiled _________ of one person to the _________ of another person; fecal-- oral)
-Vehicle (foodborne or waterborne)
-Mechanical vector - Flies

-contact
-fingers
-mouth

85

-Disease: Shigellosis-

Mode of Transmission:
-Direct or indirect contact (bacteria passing from stools or soiled fingers of one person to the mouth of another person; fecal-- oral)
- _________ (foodborne or waterborne)
- _________ vector - Flies

-Vehicle
-Mechanical

86

-Disease: Shigellosis-

Signs & Symptoms:
-Diarrhea containing blood and _________ (dysentery)
-Fever
- _________

-mucus
-Cramp

87

-Disease: Shigellosis-

Treatment:
-I.V. Fluid and _________
- _________ (drug resistance is a concern with this microbe)

-electrolytes
-Antibiotics

88

-Disease: Shigellosis-

Prevention:
-Good basic _________ and hand-washing
-Cooking food
- _________ water

-hygiene
-Boiling

89

-Disease: Shigellosis-

Sequelae
% of persons who are infected get _________ syndrome (post infection arthritis)
Sometimes _________ syndrome occurs after infection with Shigella dysenteriae type 1 -because of the Shiga toxin

-Reiter’s
-Hemolytic uremic

90

-Disease: Shigellosis-

Sequelae
Approximately 2-3% of persons who are infected get Reiter’s syndrome (post infection _________)
Sometimes Hemolytic uremic syndrome occurs after infection with Shigella dysenteriae type 1 -because of the _________ toxin

-arthritis
-Shiga