Flashcards in Lecture Exam 1 - Notes: pages 6-16 Deck (85):
_________ : microbes that are naturally found in and on the body.
The majority of normal flora are _________, but all of them are opportunistic
_________ - A person who is infected with a pathogen but doesn't have any signs or symptoms of a disease (not sick)
_________ Infection - doesn't have any signs or symptoms of a disease (not sick)
_________ Infection - Have signs and symptoms (you’re sick)
Factors that can influence the numbers of _________
The uterus and its contents are normally sterile during _________ and fetal development and remain germ free until just before _________
8-12 hours after delivery the newborn is typically colonized by _________ such as Streptococci, Staphylococci, and Lactobacilli
Breast fed infants acquire primarily _________ species whose growth is favored by a growth factor from milk (Oligopolysacchrides)
Breast fed infants acquire primarily Bifidobacterium species whose growth is favored by a growth factor from milk (_________ )
_________ : It produces products that protect the infant from pathogens. (kills the pathogens)
Skin and its contiguous mucous membranes
Upper respiratory tract
Outer opening of the urethra
External ear canal
External eye (lids, conjunctiva)
Sites that harbor Normal flora
All internal tissues and organs
Fluid with in organs or tissue
Sites that are sterile
_________ (germ free; have no microbes in or on them)
_________ : Preparation of live microbes used as a preventive o therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens.
_________ : A non-digestible food product that is taken to enhance the growth of beneficial microbes in the body.
_________ : The active cultures in yogurt - Any fermented food
_________ : The oligopolysaccharides in breast milk. -Fiber
oligopolysaccharides = type of _________
Produces acid as it grows, and grows best in an acidic environment
It is called an acidophile
Oral flora, G.I flora, and Vaginal flora
Grows best around a neutral pH (neutrophile)
Acid will kill or inhibit the growth of Candia
If Candida grows it will cause Candidiasis (yeast infection)
Oral Candidiasis (Thrush)
Candidiasis is treated using anti-fungal drugs
Under normal circumstances high levels of _________ protect us from candidiasis
Under normal circumstances high levels of lactobacillus protect us from candidiasis. But the use of _________ may change the balance of flora resulting in disease.
_________ most commonly occurs in one of 3 ways:
Direct contact - Physical contact
_________ - Infection caused by a microbe that comes from another source
_________ - disease potential always there, just the normal flora was changed
_________ Infection - Infection caused by the persons normal flora
Normal flora in the G. I tract
Produces Bacteriocins as it grows
Bacteriocins will prevent endospore germination
Anaerobe - will only grow in the absence of oxygen
Produces toxins as it grows - (poisons)
If it grows in the G.I tract, signs/symptoms range from a mild diarrhea to colitis, called _________ colitis.
This can result in ulceration and perforation of the intestinal wall.
Under normal circumstances high levels of E. coli protect us from _________ associated diarrhea. But the use of antibiotics may change the balance of flora resulting in disease.
Treatment involves using Vancomycin to treat the colitis, and Flagyl is given to prevent _________ germination.
Vancomycin & Flagyl are _________
C. difficle associated diarrhea
Last resort treatment: _________ (fecal replacement therapy)
Patients with signs/symptoms of Clostridium difficle infection should be in _________ . (Gloves, gowns, covering over shoes) - (Instruments used should be dedicated to the room)
Areas contaminated with Clostridium difficle must be disinfected with a _________ (will destroy endospores.
Theory of _________ :
life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter (Theory Not accepted Today)
Theory of Spontaneous Generation:
life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter (Theory _________ Today)
Theory of _________ :
life arises from preexisting life (Theory Accepted today)
Theory of Biogenesis
life arises from preexisting life (Theory _________ today)
Germ Theory of Disease: Microbes are the cause of _________
Milk is pasteurized to kill _________ , the non-pathogens still survive
Milk spoils due to the growth of the _________ microbes in it.
This is a sterilization process commonly used on coffee creamer
UHT: Ultra High Temperature
_________ = to destroy all life
_________ = free of all life
1 microbe (many strains) ———causes _________
Many microbes---cause the _________
_________ : obligate intracellular parasites (require other cells to reproduce in)
_________ cannot be grown in pure culture
disease _________ to provide protection from the more deadly smallpox
Cowpox: low mortality: caused by _________ virus
Smallpox: high mortality: caused by _________ virus
_________ is the only disease to be completely eradicated from the world using a worldwide vaccination campaign
Smallpox vaccine : consist of active _________ virus
Vaccination/Immunization: done to _________ disease (disease prevention)
Vaccination is not used to _________ a disease.
_________ vaccination was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. This means that all susceptible people in an area (ring) around an outbreak of the disease are vaccinated.
Vaccination/Immunization: process of intentional exposure to an _________
_________ : agent that initiates antibody formation
A foreign substance that the immune system will recognize as “nonself”.
_________ : protein produced in response to an antigen
Antibodies are called immunoglobulins
After exposure to an antigen the body develops an _________ (memory) response.
When 85-95% of a population is immune the entire population is generally protected from epidemics. This is the concept of _________ immunity.
_________ vaccine: live/active but the organism will not cause disease. (avirulent)
Sabin polio (world-wide polio eradication campaign)
MMR [measles, mumps, rubella (German measles)]
Chickenpox (Varicella-Zoster virus)
Attenuated vaccines can revert (reversion) from avirulent to virulent if person has an _________
_________ vaccine: the microbe is destroyed. A person is injected with all the pieces
Salk polio vaccine (polio vaccine used in America)
_________ vaccine: consists of parts of a microbe
Acellular Pertussis (Whooping cough)
_________ : inactive toxin
_________ : toxoid joined to a capsule
HiB (Haemophilus influenzae type b):
Gardasil contains 4 strains of HPV
_________ = No herd immunity
Vaccine didn't “take” - Person did not develop an _________ response
_________ : the treatment of disease by chemical substances
_________ : produced naturally by microbes
_________ : produced from chemicals in a lab - Artificial compound
_________ : an antibiotic that has been altered chemically in a lab
_________ : Prevention of disease using a chemotherapeutic agent (drug)
_________ : used to treat syphilis.
_________ aureus, which is the leading cause of surgical wound infections
The overuse and inappropriate use of chemotherapeutic drugs has resulted in many microbes becoming :
_________ : the drug cannot kill the organism
_________ : the drug can kill the organism