Lecture Exam 1 - Notes: pages 6-16 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Exam 1 - Notes: pages 6-16 Deck (85):
1

_________ : microbes that are naturally found in and on the body.

Normal flora

2

The majority of normal flora are _________, but all of them are opportunistic

nonpathogenic

3

_________ - A person who is infected with a pathogen but doesn't have any signs or symptoms of a disease (not sick)

Carrier

4

_________ Infection - doesn't have any signs or symptoms of a disease (not sick)

Subclinical

5

_________ Infection - Have signs and symptoms (you’re sick)

Clinical

6

Age
Gender
Hygiene
Drugs
Genetics
Nutrition
Stress

Factors that can influence the numbers of _________

normal flora

7

The uterus and its contents are normally sterile during _________ and fetal development and remain germ free until just before _________

- embryonic
-birth

8

8-12 hours after delivery the newborn is typically colonized by _________ such as Streptococci, Staphylococci, and Lactobacilli

microbes

9

Breast fed infants acquire primarily _________ species whose growth is favored by a growth factor from milk (Oligopolysacchrides)

Bifidobacterium

10

Breast fed infants acquire primarily Bifidobacterium species whose growth is favored by a growth factor from milk (_________ )

Oligopolysacchrides

11

_________ : It produces products that protect the infant from pathogens. (kills the pathogens)

Bifidobacterium

12

Skin and its contiguous mucous membranes
Upper respiratory tract
Gastrointestinal tract
Outer opening of the urethra
External genitalia
Vagina
External ear canal
External eye (lids, conjunctiva)

_________-

Sites that harbor Normal flora

13

_________ ;
All internal tissues and organs
Fluid with in organs or tissue

Sites that are sterile

14

_________ (germ free; have no microbes in or on them)

axenic animals

15

_________ : Preparation of live microbes used as a preventive o therapeutic measure to displace or compete with potential pathogens.

Probiotic

16

_________ : A non-digestible food product that is taken to enhance the growth of beneficial microbes in the body.

Prebiotic

17

_________ : The active cultures in yogurt - Any fermented food

Probiotic

18

_________ : The oligopolysaccharides in breast milk. -Fiber

Prebiotic

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oligopolysaccharides = type of _________

sugar

20

_________ :
Nonpathogenic bacteria
Oral flora
G.I. flora
Vaginal flora

Lactobacillus

21

_________ :
Produces acid as it grows, and grows best in an acidic environment
It is called an acidophile

Lactobacillus

22

_________ :
Pathogenic yeast
Oral flora, G.I flora, and Vaginal flora
Grows best around a neutral pH (neutrophile)
Acid will kill or inhibit the growth of Candia

Candida

23

_________ :
If Candida grows it will cause Candidiasis (yeast infection)
Vaginal Candidiasis
Oral Candidiasis (Thrush)
Candidiasis is treated using anti-fungal drugs

Candida

24

Under normal circumstances high levels of _________ protect us from candidiasis

lactobacillus

25

Under normal circumstances high levels of lactobacillus protect us from candidiasis. But the use of _________ may change the balance of flora resulting in disease.

antibiotics

26

_________ most commonly occurs in one of 3 ways:
Antibiotic induced
Immune deficiency
Direct contact - Physical contact

Candidiasis

27

_________ - Infection caused by a microbe that comes from another source

Exogenesis

28

_________ - disease potential always there, just the normal flora was changed

Candida

29

_________ Infection - Infection caused by the persons normal flora

Endogenesis

30

_________ :
Nonpathogenic bacteria
Normal flora in the G. I tract
Produces Bacteriocins as it grows
Bacteriocins will prevent endospore germination

E. coli

31

_________ :
Pathogenic bacteria
­Endospore former
Anaerobe - will only grow in the absence of oxygen
Produces toxins as it grows - (poisons)

Clostridium difficle

32

Clostridium difficult:
If it grows in the G.I tract, signs/symptoms range from a mild diarrhea to colitis, called _________ colitis.
This can result in ulceration and perforation of the intestinal wall.

Pseudomembranous

33

Under normal circumstances high levels of E. coli protect us from _________ associated diarrhea. But the use of antibiotics may change the balance of flora resulting in disease.

C. difficle

34

Clostridium difficle:
Treatment involves using Vancomycin to treat the colitis, and Flagyl is given to prevent _________ germination.

endospore

35

Vancomycin & Flagyl are _________

Antibiotics

36

C. difficle associated diarrhea
Last resort treatment: _________ (fecal replacement therapy)

Bacteriotherapy

37

Patients with signs/symptoms of Clostridium difficle infection should be in _________ . (Gloves, gowns, covering over shoes) - (Instruments used should be dedicated to the room)

contact isolation

38

Areas contaminated with Clostridium difficle must be disinfected with a _________ (will destroy endospores.

sporicidal agent

39

Theory of _________ :
life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter (Theory Not accepted Today)

Spontaneous Generation

40

Theory of Spontaneous Generation:
life can arise spontaneously from nonliving matter (Theory _________ Today)

Not accepted

41

Theory of _________ :
life arises from preexisting life (Theory Accepted today)

Biogenesis

42

Theory of Biogenesis
life arises from preexisting life (Theory _________ today)

Accepted

43

Germ Theory of Disease: Microbes are the cause of _________

some diseases

44

Milk is pasteurized to kill _________ , the non-pathogens still survive

pathogens

45

Milk spoils due to the growth of the _________ microbes in it.

nonpathogenic

46

_________ :
This is a sterilization process commonly used on coffee creamer

UHT: Ultra High Temperature

47

_________ = to destroy all life

Sterilization

48

_________ = free of all life

Sterile

49

1 microbe (many strains) ———causes _________

many diseases

50

Many microbes---cause the _________

same disease

51

_________ : obligate intracellular parasites (require other cells to reproduce in)

Viruses

52

_________ cannot be grown in pure culture

Viruses

53

disease _________ to provide protection from the more deadly smallpox

cowpox

54

Cowpox: low mortality: caused by _________ virus

Vaccinia

55

Smallpox: high mortality: caused by _________ virus

Variola

56

_________ is the only disease to be completely eradicated from the world using a worldwide vaccination campaign

Smallpox

57

Smallpox vaccine : consist of active _________ virus

vaccinia

58

Vaccination/Immunization: done to _________ disease (disease prevention)

prevent

59

Vaccination is not used to _________ a disease.

treat

60

_________ vaccination was used in the smallpox eradication campaign. This means that all susceptible people in an area (ring) around an outbreak of the disease are vaccinated.

Ring

61

Vaccination/Immunization: process of intentional exposure to an _________

antigen

62

_________ : agent that initiates antibody formation
A foreign substance that the immune system will recognize as “nonself”.

Antigen

63

_________ : protein produced in response to an antigen
Antibodies are called immunoglobulins

Antibody

64

After exposure to an antigen the body develops an _________ (memory) response.

anamnestic

65

When 85-95% of a population is immune the entire population is generally protected from epidemics. This is the concept of _________ immunity.

herd

66

_________ vaccine: live/active but the organism will not cause disease. (avirulent)

Sabin polio (world-wide polio eradication campaign)
MMR [measles, mumps, rubella (German measles)]
Chickenpox (Varicella-Zoster virus)

Attenuated

67

Attenuated vaccines can revert (reversion) from avirulent to virulent if person has an _________

immune deficiency.

68

_________ vaccine: the microbe is destroyed. A person is injected with all the pieces
Salk polio vaccine (polio vaccine used in America)
Influenza vaccine

Killed/Inactivated

69

_________ vaccine: consists of parts of a microbe
Acellular Pertussis (Whooping cough)

Subunit

70

_________ : inactive toxin
Tetanus
Diphtheria

Toxoid

71

_________ : toxoid joined to a capsule

HiB (Haemophilus influenzae type b):
Pneumococcal

Conjugated

72

_________ vaccine:

Gardasil contains 4 strains of HPV
HPV

Genetically engineered

73

_________ = No herd immunity

Gardasil

74

Vaccine didn't “take” - Person did not develop an _________ response

anamnestic

75

_________ : the treatment of disease by chemical substances

Chemotherapy

76

_________ : produced naturally by microbes

Antibiotics

77

_________ : produced from chemicals in a lab - Artificial compound

Synthetic drugs

78

_________ : an antibiotic that has been altered chemically in a lab

Semi-synthetic

79

_________ : Prevention of disease using a chemotherapeutic agent (drug)

Prophylaxis

80

_________ : used to treat syphilis.

Salvarsan

81

_________ aureus, which is the leading cause of surgical wound infections

Staphylococcus

82

The overuse and inappropriate use of chemotherapeutic drugs has resulted in many microbes becoming :

drug resistant

83

_________ : the drug cannot kill the organism

Resistant

84

_________ : the drug can kill the organism

Sensitive

85

_________ - Resistant to every antibiotic available

Pan resistant