Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 14-16 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology 156 > Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 14-16 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture Exam 2 - Notes: pages 14-16 Deck (66):
1

__________ Transmission: transmission that occurs after birth

Horizontal

2

Horizontal Transmission: transmission that occurs __________ birth

after

3

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ Contact: Reservoir --> Host

Direct

4

-Horizontal Transmission-

Direct Contact:

i.e. __________, mononucleosis (__________)

-STDs
-influenza

5

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ Contact: Reservoir--> Fomite--> Host

Indirect

6

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ : contaminated nonliving object

Fomite

7

-Horizontal Transmission-

Indirect Contact:
i.e. __________ from needle use, Influenza (__________ )

-HIV
-most common

8

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ : Reservoir--> water/mucus droplets--> Host

Droplet

9

-Horizontal Transmission-

Droplet: (transmission over a __________ distance)

short

10

-Horizontal Transmission-

Droplet:
i.e. __________, Influenza, __________ cough

-TB
-Whooping

11

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ :
Foodborne:
Waterborne:
Bloodborne:
Airborne:
Vector:

Vehicle

12

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ : eating contaminated food

Foodborne

13

-Horizontal Transmission-

Food __________ : the microbe causes disease directly
i.e. Listeriosis

infection

14

-Horizontal Transmission-

Food __________ : consuming toxin produced by the microbe, this is a true food poisoning i.e. Botulism

intoxication

15

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ : drinking contaminated water

Waterborne

16

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ : infection occurs from a blood transfusion, or a blood product infusion

Bloodborne

17

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ : transmission of the microbe over a long distance usually in dust
Mold spores, TB

Airborne

18

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ : insect

Vector

19

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ Vector: microbe is carried on the surface of the vector
Passive transport

Mechanical

20

-Horizontal Transmission-

Mechanical Vector: microbe is carried on the surface of the vector
Passive transport
__________, Cockroaches
i.e. __________ , Typhoid

-Houseflies
-Trachoma

21

-Horizontal Transmission-

__________ Vector: The microbe is carried in the vector; blood sucking insects
Active transport

Biological

22

-Horizontal Transmission-

Biological Vector: The microbe is carried in the vector; blood sucking insects
Active transport
Flea, __________, Tick
i.e. __________, West Nile, __________, Malaria

-Mosquito
-Plague
-Lyme

23

Biological Vector: __________ transport

Active

24

Mechanical Vector: __________ transport

Passive

25

__________ disease: Disease that can be transmitted from one host to another

Communicable

26

Communicable disease: Disease that can be transmitted from one host to another.

-i.e. __________

HIV/AIDS

27

__________ disease: Disease that is easily transmitted from one host to another.
Usually transmitted by the droplet or airborne route.
i.e. Tuberculosis

Contagious

28

Contagious disease: Disease that is easily transmitted from one host to another.
Usually transmitted by the __________ or airborne route.
i.e. __________

-droplet
-Tuberculosis

29

__________ disease: Disease that is not transmitted from one host to another. i.e. tetanus

Non-communicable

30

Non-communicable disease: Disease that __________ transmitted from one host to another.
i.e. __________

-is not
-tetanus

31

__________ infection: Health care facility (hospital) acquired infection
ex. nursing home, doctors office

Nosocomial

32

Nosocomial infection: Health care facility (hospital) acquired infection
ex. __________ , doctors office

nursing home

33

-Nosocomial infection-

Urinary tract: etiology is __________

E. coli

34

-Nosocomial infection-

Surgical site: etiology is __________ aureus

Staphylococcus

35

3 Factors interacting together contribute to Nosocomial infections

- __________ :
- Compromised host:
- Chain of __________:

-Microbes
-transmission

36

3 Factors interacting together contribute to Nosocomial infections::

__________ : Pathogens can cause nosocomial infection, but most are caused by opportunists

Microbes

37

3 Factors interacting together contribute to Nosocomial infections::

__________ : One whose resistance to infection is impaired

Compromised host

38

3 Factors interacting together contribute to Nosocomial infections::

__________ : How does the microbe get to the host

Chain of transmission

39

__________ : Guidelines set up by the CDC for handling patients and body substances

Standard precautions

40

Standard precautions:
Based on the assumption that all patient specimens could harbor __________ agents, and therefore must be treated with the same degree of __________

-infectious
-care

41

The primary recommendation by the CDC to reduce the incidence of __________ infections is to increase the use of hand sanitizer/ hand washing by __________

-nosocomial
-health care workers.

42

__________ Diseases (EIDs): diseases that are new or changing; having an increase in incidence in the recent past or a potential to increase in the future

Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs)

43

Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs): diseases that are __________ or changing; having an increase in incidence in the recent past or a __________ to increase in the future

-new
-potential

44

Emerging Infectious Diseases (EIDs):
ex. __________ is not a new disease but it is becoming __________ is changing

-maleria
-resistance

45

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Modern __________ = West Nile Virus

transportation

46

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Overuse of __________ = Mosquitos developing resistance to pesticides

pesticides

47

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Overuse of pesticides = __________ developing __________ to pesticides

-Mosquitos
-resistance

48

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Overuse of __________ = microbes becoming drug resistant

antibiotics

49

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Overuse of antibiotics = __________ becoming drug resistant

microbes

50

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

__________ measures = increase in the incidence of Lyme disease the deer population increases

Animal control

51

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Animal control measures = increase in the incidence of __________ disease as the __________ population increases

-Lyme
-deer

52

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Failure of __________ = education on the need and safety of vaccination

Public Health

53

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Failure of Public Health = education on the need and safety of __________

vaccination

54

-Factors leading to the emergence of diseases-

Climate and __________ changes

Ecological

55

__________ Syndrome - (Related to Climate and Ecological changes)

Hanta Pulmonary

56

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Emerged in the __________ region of America in the early ____

-Four Corners
-90s

57

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Caused by the __________ Virus (Hanta Virus)

Sin Nombre

58

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Found in the G.I. tract of the __________ (reservoir)

deer mouse

59

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

__________ : Airborne (inhalation of mouse __________ )

-Transmission
-droppings

60

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Starts off with __________ signs and symptoms, then the lungs fill with __________

-flu-like
-fluid

61

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Has a high __________ rate

mortality

62

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Emerged due to __________ and ecological changes

climate

63

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Excessive __________ --> increased __________ productivity--> increased reproductive success of the deer mouse--> population explosion of deer mice--> greater proximity of deer mice to humans--> increased risk of people inhaling microscopic amounts of deer mouse dropping--> increase in the number of cases of Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome

-rainfall
-plant

64

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Excessive rainfall--> increased plant productivity--> increased reproductive success of the __________ --> population__________ of deer mice--> greater proximity of deer mice to humans--> increased risk of people inhaling microscopic amounts of deer mouse dropping--> increase in the number of cases of Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome

-deer mouse
-explosion

65

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

Excessive rainfall--> increased plant productivity--> increased reproductive success of the deer mouse--> population explosion of deer mice--> greater proximity of deer mice to__________ --> increased risk of people __________ microscopic amounts of deer mouse dropping--> __________ in the number of cases of Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome

-humans
-inhaling
-increase

66

-Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome-

CDC recommendation is to avoid Deer mice and their __________

droppings