Final Exam - Notes: pages 6-12 Flashcards Preview

Microbiology 156 > Final Exam - Notes: pages 6-12 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Final Exam - Notes: pages 6-12 Deck (108):
1

Disease: __________
Disease of the respiratory tract (Contagious disease)

Etiology: Rubeola virus

Measles

2

Disease: Measles
Disease of the __________ (__________ disease)

Etiology: Rubeola virus

-respiratory tract
-Contagious

3

Disease: Measles
Disease of the respiratory tract (Contagious disease)

Etiology: __________

Rubeola virus

4

-Disease: Measles-

Reservoir: __________

Human

5

-Disease: Measles-

Reservoir: Human:
-Found in the __________ of the nose and the __________
-This virus can survive on fomites for approximately 2 hours

-mucus
-throat

6

-Disease: Measles-

Reservoir: Human:
-Found in the mucus of the nose and the throat
-This virus can survive on __________ for approximately __ hours

-fomites
-2

7

-Disease: __________ -

Mode of Transmission:

-Direct contact
-Droplet
--Breathing
--Coughing
--Sneezing

Measles

8

-Disease: Measles-

Mode of Transmission:

- __________
- __________
--Breathing
--Coughing
--Sneezing

-Direct contact
-Droplet

9

-Disease: Measles-

Signs & Symptoms:
Prodromal:
- __________ -
--Fever
--__________
--Cough

-Common Cold
-Running nose

10

-Disease: Measles-

Signs & Symptoms:
__________ period:
-Tiny __________ spots with bluish-white centers found inside the mouth (Koplik’s spots)
-Red to Reddish brown rash (begins on the face and spreads downwards)
-High fever

-Invasion
-white

11

-Disease: Measles-

Signs & Symptoms:
Invasion period:
-Tiny white spots with bluish-white centers found inside the __________ (Koplik’s spots)
-Red to Reddish brown __________ (begins on the face and spreads downwards)
-High __________

-mouth
-rash
-fever

12

-Disease: Measles-

Invasion period:
- __________ infection
- pneumonia
- __________ (inflammation of the brain leading to convulsions--deafness, brain damage)

-ear
-encephalitis

13

-Disease: Measles-

Invasion period:
- ear infection
- pneumonia
- encephalitis (inflammation of the __________ leading to convulsions-- __________ , brain damage)

-brain
-deafness

14

-Disease: Measles-

When it transmits __________ it will cause miscarriage or cause __________ delivery

-vertically
-premature

15

-Disease: Measles-

Treatment:
- __________ reducing medication i.e. acetaminophen, ibuprofen
- __________ if there is a secondary infection such as an ear infection, pneumonia
-Vitamin A reduces the severity of the disease

-Fever
-Antibiotics

16

-Disease: Measles-

Treatment:
Fever reducing medication i.e. acetaminophen, ibuprofen
Antibiotics if there is a __________ infection such as an ear infection, pneumonia
Vitamin __ reduces the severity of the disease

-secondary
-A

17

-Disease: Measles-

Prevention: __________ (attenuated vaccine)

MMR vaccine

18

-Disease: __________ -

Prevention: MMR vaccine (__________ vaccine)

-Measles
-attenuated

19

-Disease: Measles-

Post exposure vaccination: given within __ hours of exposure

72

20

-Disease: __________ -

Serum immune globulin given to: (given within 6 days of exposure) - Artificial passive immunity
-Pregnant woman
-Infants
-Immunocompromised individuals

Measles

21

-Disease: Measles-

Serum immune __________ given to: (given within__ days of exposure) - Artificial passive immunity
-Pregnant woman
-Infants
-Immunocompromised individuals

-globulin
-6

22

-Disease: Measles-

Serum immune globulin given to: (given within 6 days of exposure) -
__________ passive immunity
-Pregnant woman
- __________
-Immunocompromised individuals

-Artificial
-Infants

23

Disease: __________ (part of TDaP)
- Disease of the upper respiratory tract

Etiology: Corynebacterium diphtheriae

Diphtheria

24

Disease: Diphtheria (part of __________)
- Disease of the upper __________

Etiology: Corynebacterium diphtheriae

-TDaP
-respiratory tract

25

Disease: Diphtheria (part of TDaP)
- Disease of the upper respiratory tract

Etiology: __________ diphtheriae

-Corynebacterium

26

-Disease: __________ -

Produces cytotoxin (cell toxin), which affects the 80S ribosome, resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death. (stops protein manufacturing)

Diphtheria

27

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Produces __________ (cell toxin), which affects the 80S __________, resulting in the inhibition of protein synthesis and cell death. (stops protein manufacturing)

-cytotoxin
-ribosome

28

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Produces cytotoxin (cell toxin), which affects the 80S ribosome, resulting in the __________ of protein synthesis and cell death. (stops protein __________)

-inhibition
-manufacturing

29

-Disease: __________ -

Cells most likely to be affected are cells of the heart and kidneys.

Diphtheria

30

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Cells most likely to be affected are cells of the __________ and __________.

-heart
-kidneys

31

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Reservoir: __________

Human

32

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Reservoir:
-Human: either sick __________ or __________.
-Carriers harbor the organism in the nasopharynx region

-people
-carriers

33

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Reservoir:
-Human: either sick people or carriers.
- __________ harbor the organism in the __________ region

-Carriers
-nasopharynx

34

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Mode of Transmission: __________

Droplet

35

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Signs & Symptoms:
The organism is __________ and only grows in the __________ region

-noninvasive
-nasopharynx

36

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Signs & Symptoms:
__________ :
Initial signs and symptoms include low-grade fever, sore throat, difficulty swallowing, swollen lymph glands. Can be misdiagnosed as “Strep” throat

Prodromal

37

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Signs & Symptoms:
Prodromal:
Initial signs and symptoms include low-grade fever, sore __________ , difficulty swallowing, swollen __________ glands. Can be misdiagnosed as “__________” throat

-throat
-lymph
-Strep

38

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Signs & Symptoms:
__________ :
-Pseudomembrane forms: grayish white membrane that forms in the back of the throat. If this blocks the air passage death can occur from suffocation
-Heart and kidney failure due to the effects of the toxin

Invasion

39

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Signs & Symptoms:
Invasion:
-__________ forms: grayish white membrane that forms in the back of the __________. If this blocks the air passage death can occur from suffocation
-Heart and kidney failure due to the effects of the toxin

-Pseudomembrane
-throat

40

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Signs & Symptoms:
Invasion :
-Pseudomembrane forms: grayish white membrane that forms in the back of the throat. If this blocks the air passage death can occur from __________
-Heart and __________ failure due to the effects of the toxin

-suffocation
-kidney

41

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Treatment:
__________ should be administered as soon as possible

Antiserum

42

-Disease: Diphtheria-

- __________ to kill the bacterium that is alive in the __________
-Tracheotomy

-Antibiotics
-nasopharynx

43

-Disease: Diphtheria-

-Antibiotics to kill the bacterium that is alive in the nasopharynx
- __________

Tracheotomy

44

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Prevention:
__________ :
Booster shots should be given every __ years

-Vaccination
-10

45

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Diphtheria is __________ because of vaccination

-sporadic

46

-Disease: Diphtheria-

Diphtheria is sporadic because of __________

vaccination

47

Disease: __________ : Whooping Cough (part of TDaP)
-Disease of the lower respiratory system
-Chronic disease

Etiology: Bordetella pertussis

Pertussis

48

Disease: Pertussis: __________ (part of TDaP)
-Disease of the lower respiratory system
-Chronic disease

Etiology: Bordetella pertussis

Whooping Cough

49

Disease: Pertussis: Whooping Cough (part of TDaP)
-Disease of the lower __________ system
- __________ disease

Etiology: Bordetella pertussis

-respiratory
-Chronic

50

Disease: Pertussis: Whooping Cough (part of TDaP)
-Disease of the lower respiratory system
-Chronic disease

Etiology: __________ pertussis

Bordetella

51

-Disease: _________ -

fimbriae, produces numerous exotoxins
-Tracheal cytotoxin: damage to ciliated cells
-Leukotoxin

Pertussis

52

-Disease: Pertussis-

fimbriae, produces numerous _________
-Tracheal _________: damage to ciliated cells

-exotoxins
-cytotoxin

53

-Disease: Pertussis-

Reservoir: _________

Human

54

-Disease: Pertussis-

Mode of Transmission: _________

Droplet

55

-Disease: Pertussis-

Catarrhal (_________):
_________ (Invasion):

-Prodromal
-Paroxysmal

56

-Disease: Pertussis-

_________ (Prodromal):
Paroxysmal (_________):

-Catarrhal
-Invasion

57

-Disease: Pertussis-

Catarrhal (Prodromal):
Signs and symptoms of a _________
- _________ during this stage
-All the bacteria are destroyed by immune cells by end of this stage
-The toxin continues to have an effect

-common cold
-Contagious

58

-Disease: Pertussis-

Catarrhal (Prodromal):
Signs and symptoms of a common cold
-Contagious during this stage
-All the bacteria are destroyed by _________ cells by end of this stage
-The _________ continues to have an effect

-immune
-toxin

59

-Disease: Pertussis-

Paroxysmal (Invasion):
- _________with a gasp for air (“whoop” sound)
- _________ during this stage

-cough
-Noncommunicable

60

-Disease: _________-

Treatment: Antibiotics before the paroxysmal stage

Pertussis

61

-Disease: Pertussis-

Treatment: Antibiotics before the _________ stage

paroxysmal

62

-Disease: Pertussis-

Prevention: _________ : Adults should get _________ shots

-Vaccination
-booster

63

-Disease: Pertussis-

Mortality rate is very low but those who do die usually die from _________ infections

secondary

64

-Disease: _________ -

Mortality rate is very low but those who do die usually die from secondary infections

Pertussis

65

-Disease: _________ -

The most common cause of the secondary infection is pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae

Pertussis

66

-Disease: Pertussis -

The most common cause of the secondary infection is _________ caused by _________ pneumoniae

-pneumonia
-Streptococcus

67

-Disease: Pertussis -

In adults the disease is commonly misdiagnosed as _________
Adults don't have violent cough with whoop sound

bronchitis

68

Disease: Tetanus: nervous system disease (part of TDaP)

Etiology: _________ tetani

Clostridium

69

Disease: _________: nervous system disease (part of TDaP)

Etiology: Clostridium tetani

Tetanus

70

-Disease: _________ -

-Produces exotoxin that is a neurotoxin called tetanospasmin.
-Tetanospasmin causes muscle contraction without relaxation

Tetanus

71

-Disease: Tetanus-

-Produces exotoxin that is a neurotoxin called _________,
which causes muscle contraction without _________

-tetanospasmin
-relaxation

72

-Disease: Tetanus-

Reservoir: _________

Soil

73

-Disease: Tetanus-

Mode of Transmission: _________ contact by the _________ route

-Indirect
-parenteral

74

-Disease: _________ -

Prodromal:
commonly misdiagnosed as a migraine
-Restlessness, irritability and neck stiffness, sensitivity to light and sound, headache

Tetanus

75

-Disease: Tetanus-

commonly misdiagnosed as a _________
-Restlessness, _________ and neck stiffness, sensitivity to light and sound, _________

-migraine
-irritability
-headache

76

-Disease: _________ -

Invasion:
-Lockjaw
-Opisthotonos due to spastic paralysis (bowing of the back)
-Risus sardonicus (sarcastic grin)
-Death from respiratory distress (aspiration of regurgitated stomach contents into the lung) (drowning in own vomit)

Tetanus

77

-Disease: Tetanus-

Invasion:
- _________
-Opisthotonos due to spastic _________ (bowing of the back)
-Risus sardonicus (sarcastic grin)
-Death from respiratory distress (aspiration of regurgitated stomach contents into the lung) (drowning in own vomit)

-Lockjaw
-paralysis

78

-Disease: Tetanus-

Invasion:
-Lockjaw
-Opisthotonos due to spastic paralysis (bowing of the back)
-Risus _________ (sarcastic grin)
-Death from _________ distress (aspiration of regurgitated stomach contents into the lung) (drowning in own vomit)

-sardonicus
-respiratory

79

-Disease: _________ -

Treatment:
-Tetanus antitoxin (TIG—tetanus immune globulin) should be given as soon as possible
-Clean wound with hydrogen peroxide
H2O2------catalase---H2O + O2
This will make the wound aerobic (So it does not germinate)
-Antibiotics

Tetanus

80

-Disease: Tetanus-

Treatment:
-Tetanus _________ (TIG—tetanus immune globulin) should be given as soon as possible
-Clean wound with _________ peroxide
H2O2------catalase---H2O + O2
This will make the wound aerobic (So it does not germinate)
-Antibiotics

-antitoxin
-hydrogen

81

-Disease: Tetanus-

Treatment:
-Tetanus antitoxin (TIG—tetanus immune globulin) should be given as soon as possible
-Clean wound with hydrogen peroxide
H2O2-- _________ --H2O + O2
This will make the wound aerobic (So it does not germinate)
- _________

-catalase
-Antibiotics

82

-Disease: Tetanus-

Prevention: _________: toxoid vaccine, booster shots given every __ years

-Vaccination
-10

83

-Disease: _________ -

Prevention: Vaccination: toxoid vaccine, booster shots given every 10 years

Tetanus

84

-Disease: Tetanus-

-Tetanus has a very high _________ rate
-The disease is sporadic in the U.S.A. - Due to _________

-mortality
-vaccination

85

-Disease: Tetanus-

-There are over 100,000 _________ that get the disease and die every year.
-This is called Tetanus _________

-newborns
-neonatorum

86

-Disease: Tetanus-

Occurs in cultures where dirty instruments are used to perform _________ or to cut the umbilical cord. Then the _________ if often covered with a mixture of dung, dirt, ash and water.

-circumcision
-wound

87

Disease: _________ (Food intoxication): nervous system disease

Etiology: Clostridium botulinum

Botulism

88

Disease: Botulism (_________): nervous system disease

Etiology: Clostridium botulinum

Food intoxication

89

Disease: Botulism (Food intoxication): nervous system disease

Etiology: _________ botulinum

Clostridium

90

-Disease: _________ -

Produces exotoxin that is a neurotoxin called botulin
Botulin causes muscle relaxation

Botulism

91

-Disease: Botulism-

-Produces exotoxin that is a _________ called botulin
- _________ causes muscle relaxation

-neurotoxin
-Botulin

92

-Disease: Botulism-

Reservoir: _________

Soil

93

-Disease: Botulism-

Mode of Transmission:
-Vehicle: _________
- _________ acid improperly canned foods are especially implicated
-Acid blocks _________ germination
-High acid foods are red tomatoes, fermented food, and citrus fruit
-Low acid foods are green and yellow vegetables and meat

-food borne
-Low
-endospore

94

-Disease: Botulism-

Mode of Transmission:
-Vehicle: foodborne
-Low acid improperly canned foods are especially implicated
-Acid blocks endospore germination
- _________ acid foods are red tomatoes, fermented food, and citrus fruit
-Low acid foods are _________ and _________ vegetables and meat

-High
-green
-yellow

95

-Disease: Botulism-
_________ :
-Blurred or double vision, slurred speech, difficulty walking - Stroke, intoxication
_________ :
-Progressive flaccid paralysis
-Respiratory paralysis -Due to the diaphragm will not contract

-Prodromal
-Invasion

96

-Disease: Botulism-

Prodromal:
-Blurred or double _________, slurred speech, difficulty walking - _________, intoxication

-vision
-Stroke

97

-Disease: Botulism-

Invasion:
-Progressive _________ paralysis
- _________ paralysis -Due to the diaphragm will not contract

-flaccid
-Respiratory

98

-Disease: _________ -

Treatment:
-Antitoxin should be given as soon as possible
-Patients are put on a respirator to keep them alive until the toxin wears off and their diaphragm can contract.

Botulism

99

-Disease: Botulism-

Treatment:
- _________ should be given as soon as possible
-Patients are put on a _________ to keep them alive until the toxin wears off and their _________ can contract.

-Antitoxin
-respirator
-diaphragm

100

-Disease: Botulism-

Prevention:
-_________ : not commonly given to civilians
-_________ food to 100 0C for >30 min (in practice this is not very feasible)

-Vaccination
-Heat

101

-Disease: Botulism-

Prevention:
Properly process _________ acid foods that are going to be canned. Low acid food should be _________ canned (use of a pressure cooker to destroy endospores)

-low
-pressure

102

-Disease: Botulism-

Commercial _________ for canned products - Uses _________ treatment

-sterilization
-UHT

103

-Disease: Botulism-

Wound botulism: Acquired through the _________ route

parenteral

104

-Disease: Botulism-

Botulin has the lowest _________ of any known toxin

L.D.

105

-Disease: Botulism-

Nitrates and _________ are added to meat products to prevent _________ of Clostridium botulinum from germinating.

-nitrites
-endospores

106

-Disease: Botulism-

When meat such as hot dogs or bacon is cooked at _________ temperature the nitrates and nitrites will react with amino-acids in the meat to form chemicals called _________.

-high
-nitrosamines

107

-Disease: Botulism-

Nitrosamine fails the test for _________. Long–term consumption of these compounds has been linked to _________ cancer

-mutagenicity
-liver

108

-Disease: Botulism-

Mutagenic - Products that are mutagenic have high risk of being _________

carcinogenic