Liver Enzymes & Dx Flashcards Preview

Jason's GI Block > Liver Enzymes & Dx > Flashcards

Flashcards in Liver Enzymes & Dx Deck (28):
1

AST and ALT are enzymes found where?

Cellular

2

Ferroxidase and proteases are enzymes found where?

Blood

3

Where is glutamate dehydrogenase found?

mitochondria

4

What was the older view of liver cell death?

swelling (mild)
rupture (severe)

5

What is the newer view of liver cell death?

rupture (severe)
bleb formation (mild)

6

hepatocyte apoptosis sequence?

nuclear degen
cytoskeleton degen
membrane blebbing
shrinking

7

What liver enzymes are in membrane?

ALP
GGT

8

What liver enzymes are in cytoplasm

ALT
AST
LD

9

What liver enzymes are in mitochondria?

mAST
SOD

10

is ALT of AST more liver specific? why?

ALT
there is mAST in every cell that has mitochondria

11

AST>ALT means what?

acute, affecting mitochondria
Alcohol/toxins

12

ALT>AST means what?

chronic/resolving hepatitis

13

Why is AST removed faster than ALT?

AST smaller 36vs. 18 hours

14

What other viruses can cause hepatitis besides Hep A-E?

EBV
CMV
Q-Fever
Rubella

15

ALT levels for mild, moderate, severe Hep A infection?

250
1000
5000 (fulminant)

16

why is ALT elevated in the first place? Viruses don't want to kill hepatocytes

Immune system CD8s apoptosing everything!!

17

Acute Hep A ALT levels are what?

1000-5000

18

Acute Hep B ALT core IgM levels what what?

2500-5000

19

Chronic Hep B and C ALT surface Ag levels are what?

50--250

20

Number one and two drug induced liver disease is?

Flucloxacillin
Amoxyclav

21

4 drugs/toxins for hepatitis

antibiotics
statins
ethanol
paracetamol

22

2 enzymes involved in biliary disease?

ALP
GGT

23

What is GGT important for?

making glutathione

24

2 kinds of biliary obstruction, they are? what are the GGT and ALP levels?

extrahepatic +++ GGT, ALP
intrahepatic +GGT, ALP

25

correlation between alcohol and GGT induction?

Nope

26

What is the most common enzyme elevated?

ALT/GGT

27

what a huge risk factor for raised ALT/GGT?

obesity

28

What's the significant of increased fructose in our diet?

Fructose get made into fat rather than used as energy like glucose, could contribute to NAFLD