Flashcards in Media figures/ theories Deck (37):
What is Abraham Maslows Hierarchy of needs?
Five tier model of human needs
What can be found in layer 1 of Maslows Hierarchy?
Physiological needs such as water, food, sleep, sex and breathing
What can be found in the second layer of Maslows Hierarchy of needs?
Safety- security, health, employment, property
What can be found in the third layer of Maslows Hierarchy of needs?
Love and belonging - sexual intimacy, family and friendship
What can be found in the fourth layer up of Maslows Hierarchy of needs?
Esteem - confidence, achievement, respect for others
What is found at the top of Maslows Hierarchy of need?
Self actualisation - creativity, problem solving, spontaneity
What was Claudi Levi- Strausses idea about binary oppositions?
Suggest that all texts use contrasts/oppositions to 'tell’ a story/ move forward the narrative/create meaning
Who was the two step flow model created by?
Katz and Lazarsfield
What are the two basic steps of the two step flow model?
1. Information taken in when reading or watching a piece of media
2. Opinion leaders pass on their opinions and views to other people
What are opinion leaders?
Audiences that have viewed a certain piece of media and pass the information about it/their opinion, onto others
What is an Echo chamber?
Where you only focus on what you're interested in/ your values. This means you're blocking out mainstream ideas
What are the good things about an echo chamber?
Makes you feel like your opinion is right
You can focus on specialised information
What are the bad things about an echo chamber?
Breeds intolerance and ignorance
Makes you not accept other opinions or ideas
What was Tzvetan Todorovs idea about the structure of a story?
1. Equilibrium (state of order)
2. Disruption/ disequilibrium/ chaos
3. New equilibrium (order is restored)
What is the Bandura/ Hyperdermic syringe theory?
The media injects messages into the minds of a passive audience.
The people take in the message and believe it
What is the rule of thirds?
Splitting an image into 3, (vertically or horizontally) and seeing where the focus of an image lies.
What is George Gerbners Cultivation theory?
The more you see something, the more you will believe it
What is the opposite theory to George Gerbners and what does it mean?
Innoculation theory = the more you see something, the less effect it has
- In a postmodern culture the boundaries between the ‘real’ world and the world of the media have collapsed = no longer possible to distinguish between reality and simulation
- Images in society no longer refer to anything ‘real’
- Media images have come to seem more ‘real’ than the reality they supposedly represent (hyperreality)
Genre is recognisable but does change over time/ borrow from other genres
Genre is important to institutions because it helps them to market texts
Blulmer and Katz
Uses and gratifications theory:
Audience entered approach that focuses on what people do with media opposed to what media does to people
Liesbet Van Zoonen
Men and women are represented differently in the media
Women are objectified as a result of western culture
Male gaze theory
Women in media are viewed from the eyes of a heterosexual man (doesn’t take into consideration the sexuality or gender of other audiences) and seen as passive objects/ male desire
Stuart Hall reception theory
Producers want audiences to respond in a particular way to a text. Some audiences do (preferred), some don’t (oppositional) and some are in the middle (negotiated).
All elements of media are codes that need to be read
These can be understood as the thing they are (denotative level) and the responses they create/ what they are associated with (connotative level)
Gender is a social construction
‘Masculine’ and ‘Feminine’ are created through repetition/ repeated behaviours
Current and Seaton
The media is controlled by a small number of firms driven by profit and power
Media concentration limits variety, creativity and quality
Diverse patterns of ownership leads to more adventurous productions
Post colonial melancholia
- white/ air brushed British history
- Split between white western civilisation and the black Atlantic
Society has constructed racial hierarchies resulting in the idea of ‘other’/‘otherness’
The media provides us with tools that we use to construct our identities
Pick & mix theory = the media offers us a range of people from whom we may ‘pick and mix’ different ideas and personalities from, in order to build our own identity
Fans take elements from media texts to create their own culture and identity - participatory culture
Fans are active participants in the construction and circulation of texts
Textual poaching - fans reads texts in ways not authorised by the creators
In new media, every consumer is now a producer
Vladmir Propp (theory and name 3 of his character types)
Idea that certain character are types are used in every narrative structure:
The false hero
There is some truth in stereotyping
You can hold stereotypes about your own group
Stereotypes aren’t always negative
Stereotypes are not fixed/ change over time
They are not always targeted at a minority group
Cultural industries minimise risk and maximise audience through vertical and horizontal integration and through how the products are made (minimise risk and maximise audiences through marketing for eg)
Conglomerates operate across many industries
Cultural hegemony is where the ruling class dominate and manipulate society, thus meaning that the ruling lass worldview becomes the accepted cultural norm.
Feminism is a political struggle to end patriarchal domination and oppression. Other factors that affect this domination/ oppression include race and class.