Module 15: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Module 15: The Lymphatic and Immune Systems Deck (32):
1

3 functions of lymphatic system

drainage
absorption
protection

2

Lymph

interstitial fluid that has entered the lymphatic vessels
3L of lymph formed a day
eventually mixes with venous blood in right atrium

3

lymphatic vessels

capillaries, vessels, trunks, ducts

4

lymphatic organs and tissues

lymph nodes
spleen
thymus
tonsils
peyers patches
appendix

5

Transportation of lymph

only flows towards the heart (away from tissue)
Contraction of skeletal muscles
Movement of lungs/thoracic cage during breathing
Contraction of smooth muscles in walls of lymphatic vessels
valves in vessels
Contractions of nearby arteries

6

Lymph capillaries

woven between tissue cells and blood capillaries
everywhere except bone marrow, teeth, bones, CNS and tissues lacking blood vessels
Drain excess interstitial fluid

7

Lymphatic vessels

more valves than veins

8

Lymphatic trunks

collect lymph from large regions of body into 2 specific lymphatic ducts

9

Lymphatic ducts

Right - lymph from right upper body; drains into superior vena cava

Thoracic - lymph from the rest of the body; drains into superior vena cava

10

Cisterna chyli

forms the beginning of the thoracic duct

11

Lymph nodes

600 nodes in the body

12

3 main clusters of nodes

axillary (armpit)
inguinal (groin)
cervical (neck)

13

Structure of nodes

bean shaped, 1inch
Capsule around node
Cortex (outer) contains T and B cells
Meduall (inner) contains B and plasma cells
Trabeculae divide nodes into compartments
Sinuses are channels where lymph flows
Germinal enters of the follicles contains areas of diving lymphocytes

14

Afferent vessels

transport lymph INTO the node

15

Efferent vessels

transport lymph OUT of the node

16

Functions of nodes

filter and clean lymph

17

Spleen

storage tank for blood
Upper left abdominal region
White pulp (mostly lymphocytes)
Red pulp (old RBC destroyed)

Forms blood during fetal development
Filters and stores blood
Destroy old RBC
Stores Lymphocytes

18

Thymus

Larger in children
Located within mediastinum (behind sternum)
Pink/gray color in children, yellow with age (fat)
2 lobes
Provides source of lymphocytes before birth
Secrets thymosin that stimulate T cells to attach pathogens

19

Tonsils and adenoids

palatine - each side of throat
pharyngeal (adenoids) - near opening of nasal cavity
lingual - base of tongue

clusters of lymphatic tissue with crypts that trap foreign substances
Prevent bacteria from entering opening around nasal/oral cavities

20

Mucosa-associated lymphatic tissue (MALT)

collectively peyers patches in small intestine, appendix, other lymphoid tissue in respiratory tract

21

First line of defence: nonspecific resistance general defence

skin
mucous membrane
tears
saliva
urine
vaginal secretions
defecation
vomiting

22

second line of defence: additional

antimicrobial substances (protective chemicals) interferon, complement

Natural killer cells
phagocytosis
inflammation
fever

23

third line of defence: specific resistance

immunity

T cells (cell mediated)
B cells (antibody mediated)

24

antigens

foreign bodies capable of generating a specific response by immune system
Found the surface of pathogens

25

B cells

develop in bone marrow
mature in bone marrow

26

t cells

develop in bone marrow
mature in thymus

27

Humoral (antibody-mediated) immunity

involves production of antibodies
Invading antigen recognized by macrophage and t cell
Helper t cell presents antigen to b cells
B cells divide into plasma cells (produce antibodies) and memory b cells (recognize antigen if it invades again)

28

Cell-mediated immunity

Antigen presenting cells (APC) aka macrophages present antigen to t cell for destruction
T cell divides into cytotoxic, helper, regulatory, memory

29

Buboes

infected lymph nodes

30

Autoimmune diseases

body treats its own tissue as being foreign
Lymphocytes attack

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
Multiple sclerosis (MS)

31

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
caused by HIV
virus destroys helper T cells
Immune system slowly collapse

32

Aging and the lymphatic system

incidence of infection and cancer is higher because t and b cells are deficient
decreased macrophage activity
Elderly take lots of drugs which may interfere with immune system