Flashcards in Molecules and Cells Deck (69):
What is a molecule?
Two or more atoms bonded together (can be the same or different atoms)
What is a compound?
Two or more different atoms bonded together
When do atoms interact?
When there are vacancies in their outermost shells
How is a chemical bond created?
Sharing, gaining, or losing electrons
What is an ionic bond?
Attraction between opposite charges
What are some characteristics of ionic bonds?
Cations (positive) and anions (negative), donating, and dissolve easily
How do atoms achieve stability?
They share electrons
Why do atoms share electrons?
To achieve stability
What is an exergonic reaction?
Gives off energy
What is an endergonic reaction?
It consumes energy
What ions do acids have free?
Acids have H+ free
What ions do bases have free?
Bases have free OH-
What are the 4 organic macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid
What makes carbon the building block of life?
It has 4 electrons in its outer shell
What does electroneutral mean?
It always shares electrons
What are organic molecules?
Molecules that contain carbon
What common element is electroneutral?
What is the function of carbohydrates?
What is the molecular structure of a carbohydrate?
C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio
What are the two types of carbohydrates and examples?
Simple (pixie stick) and complex (whole wheat bread)
What are the characteristics of simple sugars?
They're sweet and provide quick energy
What are the characteristics of complex carbohydrates?
Starch/ cellulose and provides lasting energy
What are three types of carbs?
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides
What are the problems with carbs?
They can cause diabetes and weight gain
What is a common characteristic of problematic foods?
They're high in refined carbs
What doesn't have carbs?
How many calories per gram are in carbs?
4 calories per gram
What happens to unused carbs?
They're stored as fat
What are lipids?
What are the 3 groups of lipids?
Oils fats and waxes, phospholipids, and steroids.
What do oils, fats, and waxes contain?
Only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They have 3 fatty chains and a glycerol molecule
What are glycerides?
The fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule
What is triglyceride?
1 glyceride with 3 fatty acid trails; a fat storage molecule
What is one distinct characteristic of phospholipids?
They have a polar side and a nonpolar side
What do steroids have?
What is one example of a steroid?
What is cholesterol essential for?
Cell membrane integrity
What is one characteristic of cholesterol?
It isn't water soluble
What are the two types of cholesterol?
HDL (good) and LDL (bad)
What does LDL do?
It circulates and can be deposited in the arteries
What is the most important organic molecule in the body?
What is one unique characteristic of proteins?
They contain nitrogen
What are the basic building blocks of proteins?
20 amino acids
What determines the type of protein?
The arrangement of 20 amino acids
What are 4 functions of proteins?
Enzymes, structure (hair), transportation (of o2 in the blood), and movement (muscles)
What is the energy value of protein?
What is a hypotonic solution?
Net out flow
What are the 5 different parts of amino acid structure?
Central carbon, hydrogen, amino group, carboxylic acid group, and the r group/ variable side chain.
What creates a peptide bond?
A dehydration synthesis reaction
What is the primary structure of an amino acid?
What is a polypeptide?
The primary structure of an amino acid. It's a long chain of amino acids and peptide bonds.
What is the secondary structure of an amino acid?
What are hydrogen bonds?
The secondary structure of amino acids. They form spirals (alpha helixes) or pleats (beta sheet)
What is the tertiary structure of an amino acid?
It's when the secondary structure folds into a unique shape.
What does the tertiary structure of an amino acid look like?
Globular and the folding of the secondary structures
What is the quaternary structure of an amino acid?
4 tertiary globs
What are quaternary amino acid structures made of?
Hemoglobin or collagen or keratin
What does the distribution of structure in a protein do?
It denatures a protein and causes it to stop working. Examples of this include cooking, sterilization, and sickness
What are enzymes?
Catalysts, which are proteins that lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction
What aren't changed/used up in a reaction?
Enzymes are not changed or used up in a reaction
What makes enzymes unique?
They only do one specific thing.
What do enzymes often do?
They often adjust sterochemistry
What do nucleic acids make up?
They make up RNA and DNA
What are chains of nucleotides in nucleic acids made of?
5 carbon sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen containing base
What does ATP stand for?
What is the primary energy source for the body?
What does ATP do?
Act as the primary energy source for the body
Where is ATP energized?
In the mitochondria of the cell