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Flashcards in Molecules and Cells Deck (69):
1

What is a molecule?

Two or more atoms bonded together (can be the same or different atoms)

2

What is a compound?

Two or more different atoms bonded together

3

When do atoms interact?

When there are vacancies in their outermost shells

4

How is a chemical bond created?

Sharing, gaining, or losing electrons

5

What is an ionic bond?

Attraction between opposite charges

6

What are some characteristics of ionic bonds?

Cations (positive) and anions (negative), donating, and dissolve easily

7

How do atoms achieve stability?

They share electrons

8

Why do atoms share electrons?

To achieve stability

9

What is an exergonic reaction?

Gives off energy

10

What is an endergonic reaction?

It consumes energy

11

What ions do acids have free?

Acids have H+ free

12

What ions do bases have free?

Bases have free OH-

13

What are the 4 organic macromolecules?

Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acid

14

What makes carbon the building block of life?

It has 4 electrons in its outer shell

15

What does electroneutral mean?

It always shares electrons

16

What are organic molecules?

Molecules that contain carbon

17

What common element is electroneutral?

Carbon

18

What is the function of carbohydrates?

[quick] energy

19

What is the molecular structure of a carbohydrate?

C, H, and O in a 1:2:1 ratio

20

What are the two types of carbohydrates and examples?

Simple (pixie stick) and complex (whole wheat bread)

21

What are the characteristics of simple sugars?

They're sweet and provide quick energy

22

What are the characteristics of complex carbohydrates?

Starch/ cellulose and provides lasting energy

23

What are three types of carbs?

Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides

24

What are the problems with carbs?

They can cause diabetes and weight gain

25

What is a common characteristic of problematic foods?

They're high in refined carbs

26

What doesn't have carbs?

Meats

27

How many calories per gram are in carbs?

4 calories per gram

28

What happens to unused carbs?

They're stored as fat

29

What are lipids?

Fats

30

What are the 3 groups of lipids?

Oils fats and waxes, phospholipids, and steroids.

31

What do oils, fats, and waxes contain?

Only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. They have 3 fatty chains and a glycerol molecule

32

What are glycerides?

The fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule

33

What is triglyceride?

1 glyceride with 3 fatty acid trails; a fat storage molecule

34

What is one distinct characteristic of phospholipids?

They have a polar side and a nonpolar side

35

What do steroids have?

4 rings

36

What is one example of a steroid?

Cholesterol

37

What is cholesterol essential for?

Cell membrane integrity

38

What is one characteristic of cholesterol?

It isn't water soluble

39

What are the two types of cholesterol?

HDL (good) and LDL (bad)

40

What does LDL do?

It circulates and can be deposited in the arteries

41

What is the most important organic molecule in the body?

Protein

42

What is one unique characteristic of proteins?

They contain nitrogen

43

What are the basic building blocks of proteins?

20 amino acids

44

What determines the type of protein?

The arrangement of 20 amino acids

45

What are 4 functions of proteins?

Enzymes, structure (hair), transportation (of o2 in the blood), and movement (muscles)

46

What is the energy value of protein?

4 cal/g

47

What is a hypotonic solution?

Net out flow

48

What are the 5 different parts of amino acid structure?

Central carbon, hydrogen, amino group, carboxylic acid group, and the r group/ variable side chain.

49

What creates a peptide bond?

A dehydration synthesis reaction

50

What is the primary structure of an amino acid?

A polypeptide

51

What is a polypeptide?

The primary structure of an amino acid. It's a long chain of amino acids and peptide bonds.

52

What is the secondary structure of an amino acid?

Hydrogen bonds

53

What are hydrogen bonds?

The secondary structure of amino acids. They form spirals (alpha helixes) or pleats (beta sheet)

54

What is the tertiary structure of an amino acid?

It's when the secondary structure folds into a unique shape.

55

What does the tertiary structure of an amino acid look like?

Globular and the folding of the secondary structures

56

What is the quaternary structure of an amino acid?

4 tertiary globs

57

What are quaternary amino acid structures made of?

Hemoglobin or collagen or keratin

58

What does the distribution of structure in a protein do?

It denatures a protein and causes it to stop working. Examples of this include cooking, sterilization, and sickness

59

What are enzymes?

Catalysts, which are proteins that lower the activation energy of a chemical reaction

60

What aren't changed/used up in a reaction?

Enzymes are not changed or used up in a reaction

61

What makes enzymes unique?

They only do one specific thing.

62

What do enzymes often do?

They often adjust sterochemistry

63

What do nucleic acids make up?

They make up RNA and DNA

64

What are chains of nucleotides in nucleic acids made of?

5 carbon sugar, phosphate, and a nitrogen containing base

65

What does ATP stand for?

Adenosine triphosphate

66

What is the primary energy source for the body?

ATP

67

What does ATP do?

Act as the primary energy source for the body

68

Where is ATP energized?

In the mitochondria of the cell

69

What is energized in the mitochondria of the cell?

ATP