Opioids - General Info Flashcards Preview

Pharm Midterm 2 > Opioids - General Info > Flashcards

Flashcards in Opioids - General Info Deck (36):
1

Where are opioid receptors located

CNS

2

What are the opioid receptors

Mu
Delta
Kappa

3

What 2nd messenger do opioids act throught

Gi

4

What receptor do the majority of opioids act through

Mu

5

Where are Delta and Kappa mostly found

Spinal level for analgesia

6

What effect do Kappa receptors have

Psychotomimesis

7

How do opioids act

Close VG Ca on presynaptic and open K on postsynaptic
Decreases NTs
Inhibit ascending pain transmission
Activate descending pain-inhibitory pathways
Block inhibitory GABAergic neuron transmission

8

Can tolerance be seen with opioids

Yes

9

Is dependence seen with opioids

Yes

10

Is addiction seen with opioids

Yes but not therapeutically

11

What are the CNS effects of opioids

Analgesia
Euphoria
Sedation and drowsiness
Truncal rigidity
N/V

12

How do opioids cause resp depression

Decrease central response to CO2

13

What effect do opioids have on cough

Supression

14

What do opioids do to pupils

Miosis
Pathognomonic for toxic dose

15

General uses of opioids

Analgesia
Acute Pulmonary Edema
Cough
Diarrhea
Shivering
Anesthesia

16

Which opioids can you give for cough

Dextromethorphan
Codeine
Levopropoxyphene
Noscapine

17

What opioids can you give for diarrhea

Loperamide
Diphenoxylate

18

What opioids can you give for shivering

Meperidine

19

How are opioids excreted

Converted to glucuronides and excreted by kidney

20

What does 2D6 metabolize

Codeine
Oxycodone
Hydrocodone

21

How do opioids cause hypotension

Peripheral vasodilation
Inhibition of baroreceptor reflex
Increased histamine release

22

How do opioids cause biliary colic

Contraction of billiary SM

23

How do opioids cause decreased renal function

Decreased RBF

24

How do opioids cause prolong labor

Just does, OK

25

How do opioids cause Pruritis

Central effects and histamine release

26

What is the main opioid AE

Constipation

27

What happens if you give a pure agonist with a weak partial agonist

Diminish analgesia
State of withdrawal

28

Opioid + Head injury

CO2 retention leading to cerebral vasodilation

29

Opioid + Pregnancy

Fetal dependence

30

Opioid + Impaired pulm function

Acute resp failure

31

Opioid + Impaired liver function

Decreased morphine metabolism

32

Opioid + Impaired renal function

Longer t1/2

33

Opioid + Endocrine disease

Prolonged/Exaggerated response

34

Opioid + Sedatives/Hypnotics

Increase CNS depression (resp)

35

Opioid + Antipsychotics

Increased sedation
Resp depression
Accentuate CV effects of Anti-Ms or alpha blockers

36

Opioid + MAOIs

LIFE THREATENING
Meperidine and Tramadol