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Flashcards in Parasites 1&2 Deck (95):
0

Lice, Mites and Ticks are what kind of parasites?

Ectoparasites

1

examples of protozoal parasites

entamoeba hystolytica
giardia intestinalis
toxoplasma gondii

2

parasite definition?

metabolically dependent organism

3

what is a reservoir host?

animal can be infected and also infect people

4

what is intermediate host?

parasite doesn't reach sexual maturity

5

what is paratenic host?

parasite does not undergo development but remains infective

6

what is definitive host?

parasite reaches sexual maturity

7

Lice is broad or focused as a species?

focused, pubic lice can't infect your head and vice versa

8

what is pediculus humanis?

lice that infects body hair

9

lice infection aka:

pediculosis

10

what is 'crabs'?

phthirus pubis

11

body louse lay eggs where?

on clothing

12

why would there be a resurgence in lice nowadays?

resistance to insecticide

13

why is lice a stigma?

used to be lice = poor hygiene

14

what were vectors of rickettsia, typhus and trench fever?

lice

15

Mites aka?

scabies

16

what happens if you scratch mites?

drives the eggs farther into your skin

17

size of scabies?

less than 0.5 mm in size

18

mites/scabies life cycle? where do they prefer to live?

single host in fingerwebs, elbows, axillae, genitals

19

treatment for mites/scabies?

ivermectin

20

mites will survive long time without a host?

nope will die pretty quickly

21

Ticks are vectors for?

infectious agents: viral, bac, protozoal, rickettsial

22

ticks and paralysis. Go.

secrete neurotoxin to anesthetize area and can cause ascending paralysis and possible Guillan-Barre

23

what is Ixodes holocyclus?

tick that causes rapid ascending paralysis

24

Lyme disease in Australia?

no epidemiological evidence really.

25

how to treat ticks?

remove them

26

are protozoa parasitic?

not really, can live freely outside of hosts

27

2 forms of the protozoa?

cyst - inactive robust
trophozoate: active, invasive

28

what is the most common amoeba human infection?

enamoeba histolytica

29

how is enamoeba histolytica transmitted and where does it invade?

invades in colon
transmitted faecal-oral

30

can enamoeba histolytica cause extra-intestinal infection? where?

yes
liver and brain abcess

31

enamoeba histolytica causes what kind of diarrhoea?

dysentry
large volume

32

treatment for enamoeba histolytica?

metronidazole + paromomycin, drainage of abscess

33

immunity for enamoeba histolytica?

nope, re-infection common

34

how long can Giardia intestinalis survive without host?

few months

35

Giardia intestinalis transmission? 2 things.

faecal-oral
zoonotic

36

presentation of Giardia intestinalis ?

subacute diarrhoea for some weeks, could resolve

37

treatment for Giardia intestinalis ?

tinidazole

38

toxoplasma gondii cysts are where usually?

muscle

39

toxoplasma gondii a parasite?

yes. obligate intracellular

40

toxoplasma gondii in Australia usually found where?

domestic cats
undercooked meat

41

toxoplasma gondii symptoms in regular folk?

asymptomatic. lifetime infection

42

when is toxoplasma gondii dangerous? 2 scenarios

organ transplant
fetus in pregnant woman

43

treatment for toxoplasma gondii?

bactrim or nil

44

diagnosis for toxoplasma gondii?

serology

45

3 major types of helminths?

roundworms
tapeworms
flukes

46

helminths have organ systems?

limited, not really.

47

what is the only helminth that can complete full cycle in human?

roundworm: strongyloides

48

what are nematodes?

roundworms

49

name 3 roundworms

pinworms
ascaris
strongyloides

50

what is schistosoma?

flukes

51

name two tape worms

echinococcus
Taenia

52

Which worm crawls out of anus to lay eggs at night and crawl back in?

pinworm

53

what is enterobius vermicularis?

pinworm

54

pinworm symptoms? how long it lasts?

itchy. lasts 4-6 weeks untreated if you can break the cycle

55

where do male and female pinworms mate?

in your cecum. Giggidy Giggidy.

56

treatment for pinworm?

antihelminthic

57

is pinworm chronic?

not really. frequent re-introduction

58

what's the main problem with ascaris lumbricoids?

physical size of the worms: 30-40cm long causing GI obstruction

59

how many eggs does ascaris lumbricoids lay per day?

200 000

60

where do the eggs hatche for ascaris lumbricoids?

in soil

61

how can ascaris lumbricoids infection mimic asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia?

larvae penetrate small intestine>hepatic circulation>lungs>alveolar space>trachea>reswallowed

62

ascaris lumbricoids in cold soil?

likes warm soil better

63

how can you rule out ascaris lumbricoids?

if they have been out of endemic area for 2 years or more

64

Strongyloides stercoralis infects how?

penetrates skin via feet

65

where does embryonisation occur?

in colon

66

what dangerous about skin penetrating Strongyloides stercoralis?

can bring gram -ve bacteria with it, dangerous in immunocompromised or cause sepsis

67

Strongyloides stercoralis needs soil to complete life cycle?

nope. can have autoinfection in humans

68

obstruction in Strongyloides stercoralis?

nope. many symptomatic

69

dx of Strongyloides stercoralis?

eggs in faeces and serology

70

2 disease control for Strongyloides stercoralis?

shoes and sewage disposal

71

what are trematodes?

flukes

72

are flukes parasitic?

yes must live on host

73

what is schistosoma mansonii?

fluke

74

where does schistosoma mansonii live?

mucosal associated intestinal veins

75

how is schistosoma mansonii transmitted?

fresh water snails

76

schistosoma mansonii larva penetrate how?

through skin through fresh water

77

are reinfections of schistosoma mansonii common?

yes

78

tape worms parasitic?

yes all are

79

example of tape work?

Echinococcus granulosus

80

humans host for Echinococcus granulosus?

accidental intermediate hosts

81

Echinococcus granulosus what kind of infection?

zoonotic

82

what do hydatid cysts come from?

Echinococcus granulosus (tape worm)

83

Echinococcus granulosus common?

less than 5 cases/year in victoria

84

what is hyperendemic dur to transmission by dingos, feral pigs, etc.?

tape worms: Echinococcus granulosus

85

can Echinococcus granulosus in liver and lungs persist?

yes for years, compressing organs

86

what is the PAIR treatment for Echinococcus granulosus cyst? or hydatids disease?

puncture
aspiration
injection
re-aspiration

87

immune response to hydatid cysts?

not really unless the cyst breaks (anaphylaxis)

88

What causes neurocystercercosis?

Taenia parasite

89

Taeniasis infects how?

zoonotic infection

90

What is taeniasis worm?

tapeworm up to 10m long

91

how many eggs do taeniasis produce per day?

300 000

92

taeniasis is major cause of what in endemic countries?

neurological disease

93

do you normally remove a Taenia solium cyst in the brain?

nope, usually leave for risk of burst/seizures

94

avoid raw pork, it might have?

Taenia solium(tapeworm)