Flashcards in Parasites 1&2 Deck (95):
Lice, Mites and Ticks are what kind of parasites?
examples of protozoal parasites
metabolically dependent organism
what is a reservoir host?
animal can be infected and also infect people
what is intermediate host?
parasite doesn't reach sexual maturity
what is paratenic host?
parasite does not undergo development but remains infective
what is definitive host?
parasite reaches sexual maturity
Lice is broad or focused as a species?
focused, pubic lice can't infect your head and vice versa
what is pediculus humanis?
lice that infects body hair
lice infection aka:
what is 'crabs'?
body louse lay eggs where?
why would there be a resurgence in lice nowadays?
resistance to insecticide
why is lice a stigma?
used to be lice = poor hygiene
what were vectors of rickettsia, typhus and trench fever?
what happens if you scratch mites?
drives the eggs farther into your skin
size of scabies?
less than 0.5 mm in size
mites/scabies life cycle? where do they prefer to live?
single host in fingerwebs, elbows, axillae, genitals
treatment for mites/scabies?
mites will survive long time without a host?
nope will die pretty quickly
Ticks are vectors for?
infectious agents: viral, bac, protozoal, rickettsial
ticks and paralysis. Go.
secrete neurotoxin to anesthetize area and can cause ascending paralysis and possible Guillan-Barre
what is Ixodes holocyclus?
tick that causes rapid ascending paralysis
Lyme disease in Australia?
no epidemiological evidence really.
how to treat ticks?
are protozoa parasitic?
not really, can live freely outside of hosts
2 forms of the protozoa?
cyst - inactive robust
trophozoate: active, invasive
what is the most common amoeba human infection?
how is enamoeba histolytica transmitted and where does it invade?
invades in colon
can enamoeba histolytica cause extra-intestinal infection? where?
liver and brain abcess
enamoeba histolytica causes what kind of diarrhoea?
treatment for enamoeba histolytica?
metronidazole + paromomycin, drainage of abscess
immunity for enamoeba histolytica?
nope, re-infection common
how long can Giardia intestinalis survive without host?
Giardia intestinalis transmission? 2 things.
presentation of Giardia intestinalis ?
subacute diarrhoea for some weeks, could resolve
treatment for Giardia intestinalis ?
toxoplasma gondii cysts are where usually?
toxoplasma gondii a parasite?
yes. obligate intracellular
toxoplasma gondii in Australia usually found where?
toxoplasma gondii symptoms in regular folk?
asymptomatic. lifetime infection
when is toxoplasma gondii dangerous? 2 scenarios
fetus in pregnant woman
treatment for toxoplasma gondii?
bactrim or nil
diagnosis for toxoplasma gondii?
3 major types of helminths?
helminths have organ systems?
limited, not really.
what is the only helminth that can complete full cycle in human?
what are nematodes?
name 3 roundworms
what is schistosoma?
name two tape worms
Which worm crawls out of anus to lay eggs at night and crawl back in?
what is enterobius vermicularis?
pinworm symptoms? how long it lasts?
itchy. lasts 4-6 weeks untreated if you can break the cycle
where do male and female pinworms mate?
in your cecum. Giggidy Giggidy.
treatment for pinworm?
is pinworm chronic?
not really. frequent re-introduction
what's the main problem with ascaris lumbricoids?
physical size of the worms: 30-40cm long causing GI obstruction
how many eggs does ascaris lumbricoids lay per day?
where do the eggs hatche for ascaris lumbricoids?
how can ascaris lumbricoids infection mimic asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia?
larvae penetrate small intestine>hepatic circulation>lungs>alveolar space>trachea>reswallowed
ascaris lumbricoids in cold soil?
likes warm soil better
how can you rule out ascaris lumbricoids?
if they have been out of endemic area for 2 years or more
Strongyloides stercoralis infects how?
penetrates skin via feet
where does embryonisation occur?
what dangerous about skin penetrating Strongyloides stercoralis?
can bring gram -ve bacteria with it, dangerous in immunocompromised or cause sepsis
Strongyloides stercoralis needs soil to complete life cycle?
nope. can have autoinfection in humans
obstruction in Strongyloides stercoralis?
nope. many symptomatic
dx of Strongyloides stercoralis?
eggs in faeces and serology
2 disease control for Strongyloides stercoralis?
shoes and sewage disposal
what are trematodes?
are flukes parasitic?
yes must live on host
what is schistosoma mansonii?
where does schistosoma mansonii live?
mucosal associated intestinal veins
how is schistosoma mansonii transmitted?
fresh water snails
schistosoma mansonii larva penetrate how?
through skin through fresh water
are reinfections of schistosoma mansonii common?
tape worms parasitic?
yes all are
example of tape work?
humans host for Echinococcus granulosus?
accidental intermediate hosts
Echinococcus granulosus what kind of infection?
what do hydatid cysts come from?
Echinococcus granulosus (tape worm)
Echinococcus granulosus common?
less than 5 cases/year in victoria
what is hyperendemic dur to transmission by dingos, feral pigs, etc.?
tape worms: Echinococcus granulosus
can Echinococcus granulosus in liver and lungs persist?
yes for years, compressing organs
what is the PAIR treatment for Echinococcus granulosus cyst? or hydatids disease?
immune response to hydatid cysts?
not really unless the cyst breaks (anaphylaxis)
What causes neurocystercercosis?
Taeniasis infects how?
What is taeniasis worm?
tapeworm up to 10m long
how many eggs do taeniasis produce per day?
taeniasis is major cause of what in endemic countries?
do you normally remove a Taenia solium cyst in the brain?
nope, usually leave for risk of burst/seizures