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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 2 Deck (55)
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1

Any disorder characterized by recurrent seizures

Epilepsy

2

Clinically detectable sign of epilepsy,
is a disturbance of electrical activity in the brain that may affect consciousness, motor activity, and sensation,
caused by abnormal or uncontrolled neuronal discharges

Seizure

3

Generalized symptoms may include blacking out, fainting spells, sensory disturbances, jerking body movements, and temporary loss of memory

Seizures

4

Involuntary, violent spasms of large skeletal muscles such as the face, neck, arms, and legs..
some types of seizures don't involve these

Convulsions
(so all convulsions are seizures, but not all seizures are convulsions) this makes a difference when prescribing drugs

5

The signs you get before a seizure that let you know one is coming

Auras

6

Prolonged seizures

Status epilepticus

7

Severe hypertensive (high blood pressure) disorder of pregnancy,
hypertension occurs occurs around the 20th week of gestation until at least 1 week after the delivery,
characterized by seizures, coma, and perinatal mortality

Eclampsia

8

Symptoms of this partial seizure include:
olfactory, auditory, and visual hallucinations,
intense emotions,
twitching from arms, legs, and face

Simple partial seizure

9

Symptoms of this partial seizure include:
auras preceding the seizure,
brief periods of confusion or sleepiness afterward with no memory of seizure (postictal confusion),
fumbling with or attempting to remove clothing,
no response to verbal commands

Complex partial seizure (psychomotor)

10

Symptoms of this generalized seizure include:
lasting only a few seconds,
seen most often in children (they stare into space, don't respond to verbal stimulation, may have fluttering eyelids or jerking),
misdiagnosed often (especially in children) as ADD or day dreaming

Absence (petit mal)

11

Symptoms of this generalized seizure include:
falling or stumbling for no reason,
lasting only a few seconds

Atonic (drop attacks)

12

Symptoms of this generalized seizure include:
auras preceding the seizure,
intense muscle contraction (tonic phase) followed by alternating contraction and relaxation of muscles (clonic phase),
crying at the beginning as air leaves lungs, loss of bowel/bladder control, shallow breathing with periods of apnea, usually lasting 1-2 minutes
disorientation and deep sleep after seizure (postictial state)

Tonic-clonic (grand mal)

13

Symptoms of this special seizure include:
tonic-clonic activity lasting 1-2 minutes,
rapid return to consciousness,
occurs in children usually between 3 mo - 5 yrs

Febrile seizure

14

Symptoms of this special seizure include:
large jerking movements of a major muscle group, such as an arm and falling from a sitting position or dropping what is held

Myoclonic seizure

15

Symptoms of this special seizure include:
considered a medical emergency and continuous/prolonged seizure activity occurs which can lead to coma and death

Status epilepticus

16

Side effect of Dilantin: constant involuntary movement of the eyeball

Nystagmus

17

Side effect of Dilantin: uncoordinated movements

Ataxia

18

Side effect of Dilantin: when you develop more anxiety and nervousness/restlessness

Paradoxical nervousness

19

Side effect of Dilantin: a very severe skin reaction

Stevens Johnson's Syndromes

20

Side effect of Dilantin: overgrowth of the gum tissue

Gingival hyperplasia

21

Dilantin is dangerous when given through an IV so you should..

Give very slowly
Never give more than 50mg/minute

22

A temporary episode of cerebral ischemia also known as a mini stroke

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)

23

Interruption of cerebral blood flow by a clot, plaque breaking off and causing cholesterol build up, and vessels could pop
damage is permanent and cerebral aneurysms can take place

Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA)

24

Similarities between TIA and CVA

Their manifestations/appearance begin the same:
muscle drooping & change in speech

25

Why is it important to distinguish between TIA and CVA

Their treatments vary/different and drugs won't be the same for both

26

How do antiseizure drugs work?

Once the medication is selected, the patient is put on a low dose and then the amount is slowly increased until the seizures are controlled the way the want them to be.
A 2nd medication can be added but the first drug will continually discontinue or 6-12 weeks
Observe for suicidal behavior
**DO NOT just stop taking seizure medications because that can make the seizure worse or the patient dies

27

What are the 3 general mechanisms that are used to basically prevent seizures..

Stimulating an influx of chloride ions (GABA)
Delaying an influx of sodium (hydantoin)
Delaying an influx of calcium

28

What does GABA stand for?

Gamma-aminobutyric acid

29

A disorder is characterized by a sad or despondent mood: the most common mental illness

Depression

30

Symptoms of depression

lack of energy
sleep disturbance
abnormal eating patterns
feelings of despair
guilt
hopelessness