Pharmacology Exam 6 Drug List Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 6 Drug List Deck (15)
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1

Penicillin G sodium/Potassium

TC: Antibacterial
PC: Cell wall inhibitor; natural penicillin
Action: disrupts bacterial cell walls
Use: pneumonia, meningitis, skin, bone, joint infections, etc.
Side Effects: Allergy is the most common adverse effect rash, Itching, Fever

Anaphylaxis ranges for 0.04% to 2%
Serum Sickness: Delayed reaction

2

Cefotaxine (Claforan)

TC: Antibacterial
PC: Third-generation cephalosporin (typo in book, page 486)
Action: Inhibits cell wall synthesis
Use: prophylaxis in patients who are undergoing surgical procedures, many types of infections
Side Effect: Oral candidiasis (thrush)

3

Tetracycline hydrochloride (Sumycin)

TC: Antibacterial
PC: protein synthesis inhibitor
Action: Act by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis and have a bacteriostatic effect
Use: peptic ulcer disease (H. pylori)
Oral and topical tetracycline used to treat ache
Side Effects: Gastric distress
photosensitivity
discoloration of teeth in young children

4

Isoniazid (INH):

PC: Antituberculosis drug
TC: mycolic acid inhibitor
Action: inhibits cell wall synthesis of the tubercle bacillus
Use: TB
Side effects: numbness of hands and feet drinking alcohol increases risk of hepatotoxicity
Multidrug therapy is often used (2, 3, 4 or more)

5

Amphotericin B (Fungizone)

TC: antifungal (systemic type)
PC: Polyene
Action: Binds with ergosterol in fungal cell membranes, causing them to become permeable or leaky
Use: prevention or treatment of fungal infections in blood
Side effect: phlebitis during IV therapy nephrotoxicity

6

Nystatin (Mycostatin)

TC: superficial antifungal
PC: polyene
Action: binds to cell membrane and weakens cell walls
Use: Superficial infections: Hair, scalp, nails,
mucous membranes of the mouth and vagina
Side Effect: skin irritation

“swish and swallow”

7

Zidovudine (Retrovir, AZT)

TC: Antiretroviral
PC: NRTI
Action: The HIV virus mistakes this drug for a component of DNA, creates defective DNA strands
Use: PEP (post exposure prophylaxis), HIV positive patients, to decrease mother/baby transmission
Side effect: fatigue, anorexia, nausea, diarrhea, headache

8

Efavirenz (Sustiva)

TC: antiretroviral
PC: NNRTI
Action: inhibits reverse transcriptase
Use: HIV AIDS positive patients
Side effect: sleep disorders, nightmares, rash is common
Once a day dosage, better than the others that are spread throughout the day
Cant be taken with high fat meal because it increases absorption

9

Lopinavir with Ritonavir (Kaletra)

TC: Antiretroviral,
PC: Protease Inhibitor (PI)
A combination drug of 2 protease inhibitors
Action: protease inhibitor
Use: treatment of HIV AIDS
Side effect: diarrhea, other GI affects, but pretty well tolerated

10

Acyclovir (Zovirax)

TC: antiviral for herpesviruses
PC: nucleoside analog
Action: decreases symptoms but does not cure
Use: HSV-1, HSV-2, cytomegalovirus (CMV)
Side effect: few when administer topically, nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity when given IV

11

Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

TC: antineoplastic
PC: alkylating agent, Nitrogen mustard
Action: These drugs cause cell death or slowing replication of cells by altering DNA structure and preventing cell reproduction
Use: for a wide variety of cancers
Adverse effects:
Bone marrow depression
GI distress
Alopecia

12

Methotrexate (MTX and Rheumatrex)

TC: Antineoplastic
PC: folic acid analog
Action: Inhibits replication in rapidly growing tumor cells
Use: various types of cancer alone or in combination
Adverse effects:
Bone marrow toxicity
GI toxicity
IV drugs so they are vesicant

13

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin)

TC: antineoplastic
PC: antitumor antibiotic
Action: attaches to DNA and prevents DNA and RNA synthesis
Use: solid tumors of the breast, lung
Side effect: BBW for myelosupression

14

Vincristine (Oncovin)

TC: antineoplastic
PC: vinca alkaloid
Action: cell cycle specific
Use: lymphoma, leukemia
Side effect: nervous system toxicity- tingling, weakness

15

Tamoxifen

TC: antineoplastic
PC: estrogen receptor blocker
Action: blocks estrogen receptors on cancer cells
Use: for treatment of metastatic breast cancer
Side effect: N/V, hot flashes