Pharmacology Exam 2 Drug List Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 2 Drug List Deck (26)
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1

PHENOBARBITAL (Luminal)

TC: antiseizure drug & sedatitive
PC: barbiturate & GABA receptor
**barbiturates depress the CNS at all levels and can help to reduce anxiety
Uses/actions: It enhances GABA (which helps to prevent seizures) and is used for various types of seizures
Side effects: drowsiness, confusion, get a little more anxious and restless
Its a schedule IV drug
In pregnancy category D
Nursing: monitor levels of drowsiness, no driving, are they awake enough to preform their daily activities

2

DIAZEPAM (Valium)

TC: antiseizure & antianxiety
PC: benzodiazepine & GABA receptor agonist
Actions: suppress activity in the limbic system and RAS (reticular activating systems)
Uses: anxiety, alcohol withdraw, terminates/ends status epilepticus.. you can repeat giving this drug every 10-15 minutes
Side effects: drowsiness
Schedule IV drug
Antidote: flumazenil (Romazicon)

3

GABAPENTIN (Nuerontin)

TC: anticonvulsant, antineuralgic
PC/action: it increases the synthesis or accumulation of GABA
Used for: seizures, restless leg syndrome, peripheral neuropathy
Side effects: fatigue and drowsiness

4

PHENYTOIN (Dilantin)

TC: antiseizure, antidysrythmic
PC: hydantoin (sodium influx depressor)
Action: affects sodium channels and decreases the spread of electrical discharge
Used to prevent most all types of seizures
Side effects: heart dysrhythmias and more, confusion, slurred speech, drowsiness, Steven Johnson syndrome (reaction of the skin, flu like symptoms, rash, swelling of the tongue and face)
** this is the most commonly prescribed medication for seizures

5

FOSPHENYTOIN (Cerebyx)

TC: anti seizure
PC: hydantoin
Action: stabalizes neuronal membranes
Used for seizures and shot term substitution for oral phentoin
** once its in the body it acts exactly the same as Dilantin and can be given IM or IV

6

IMIPRAMINE (Tofranil)

TC: antidepressant
PC: tricyclic antidepressant (TCAs)
Action: blocks the reuptake of both norephinephrine and serotonin
Use: used for depression, nocturnal enuresis (bed wetting)
Side effects: sedation, orthostatic hypotension

7

SERTRALINE (Zoloft)

TC: antidepressant
PC: Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Action: block the reuptake of serotonin
Use: depression, post traumatic stress disorder
Side effect: headache, nausea

8

PHENELZINE (Nardil)

TC: Antidepressant
PC: Monoamine Oxidase (MAOIs) inhibitor, increases norepinephrine levels
Action: inhibits monoamine oxidase
Uses: depression
Side effects: hypertensive crisis with some foods meaning there are a lot of foods that people aren't able to have when they are taking Nardil

9

VENLAFAXINE (Effexor)

TC: antidepressant
PC: serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI)
Action: SNRI^^
Uses: GAD, SAD, chronic fatigue, depression
Side effects: nausea, drowsiness

10

LITHIUM CARBONATE (Eskalith)

TC: mood stabilizing drug (bipolar disorder)
PC: glutamate inhibitor, serotonin receptor antagonist
Action: inhibits an excitatory neurotransmitter in the synapse
Use: bipolar disorder, PTSD
Side effects: polydipsia- an increased thirst,
polyuria- an increased amount of urine output, limit caffeine intake, nausea, weight gain
*Essential monitoring of lithium levels is very important, liver and renal studies.. blood levels are drawn in order to monitor these lithium levels

11

METHLYPHENIDATE (Ritalin)

TC: ADHD drug
PC: CNS stimulant
Action: activate the RAS
Uses: ADHD, narcolepsy, sometimes depression
Side effects: anxiety, insomnia, nervousness, inability to sleep
**Schedule II drug because its often abused and sold
**Should not be taken later in the day so that it doesn't interfere with sleep
**Worry about weight gain in children
**Avoid stimulants: combining stimulants and caffeine can stimulate your heart rate and cause a fatal dysrhythmia

12

CHLORPROMAZINE (Thorazine)

TC: antipsychotic or schizophrenia drug
PC: affects dopamine receptor antagonist (so prevents dopamine from reaching the receptors), PHENOTHIAZINE
Action: prevents dopamine from reaching receptors
Uses: psychotic disorders, severe nausea, and vomiting
Side effects: drowsiness, constipation

13

More specific side effects of phenothiazine

Acute dystonia
Akathisia
Parkinsonism
Tardive dyskinesia
Anticholinergic effects
Hypotension
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome
Sedation
Sexual dysfunction

14

HALOPERIDOL (Haldol)

TC: antipsychotic and schizophrenia drug
PC: dopamine receptor antagonist, NONPHENOTHIAZINE
Action: blocks dopamine receptors
Uses: schizophrenia, Tourette's disorder, emergency sedation, also used for confused elderly people
Side effects: blurred vision, constipation, there's less sedation so less risk but basically the same as Thorazine

15

RISPERIDONE (Risperdal)

TC: atypical antipsychotic, schizophrenia drug
PC: dopamine receptor antagonist, ATYPICAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC
Action: weaker affinity for one dopamine receptor
Use: schizophrenia
Side effects: fewer side effects but still signifgicant, effects such as agitation and anxiety

16

Morphine

TC: opioid
PC: opioid receptor agonist
Action: binds with mu or kappa receptors and stops the feeling of pain
Use: treatment of acute or chronic severe pain
Side effects: nausea, vomiting, sedation

17

Routes of Morphine

PO 5-30mg q4h PRN
Rectal 10-20mg q4h
PRN
Sustained release
IV 2-10mg / 70kg
SubQ and IM 5-20
mg/70kg
Epidural (tiny doses this way)

18

FETANYL (Actiq, Duragesic, Ionsys)

Cancer patients use these for break though pain, they can carry them with them
Similar to Morphine

19

HYDROMORPHONE (Dilaudid)

TC: opioid, schedule II
PC: narcotic analgesic, antitussive
Action: binds to opioid receptors
Use: relief of moderate to severe pain
Side effects: drowsiness, dizziness

20

NALOXONE (Narcan)

TC: treatment of opioid overdose and misuse
PC: opioid receptor antagonist
Action: blocks both mu and kappa receptors
Use: reversal of opioid effects
Side effects: rapid loss of analgesia
*Might have to repeat over and over
*Keep checking in on patients, every few minutes

21

BUPRENORPHINE (Buprenex, Suboxone)

TC: opioid agonist-antigonist
PC: analgesic, opioid dependence adjunct
Action: binds to opioid receptors
Use: dependence and pain
Side effect: sedation and dizziness

22

ACETYLSALICYLIC ACID (Aspirin, ASA)

TC: nonopioid analgesic, NSAID, antipyretic
PC: salicylate, cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor (COX1 inhibitor causes stomach upset)
Action: inhibits COX1 (so meaning this medication protects the stomach barrier/ its a protective barrier) and COX2
Use: for pain, fever, inflammation, to reduce platelet aggregation
Side effect: mostly related to COX1: gastric discomfort, tinnitus (buzzing sound in the ear that occurs with too much apsirin), Reye Syndrome (starts out as flu like illness) in the most extreme cases can effect the liver and cause liver damage
*85mg dose is called baby aspirin but aspirin should not be given to babies or children, aspirin can be given to them only to help with clotting but its still a risk
*325mg is an adult dose
*If a lot of aspirin is taken, emergency room

23

ACETAMINOPHEN (Tylenol)

TC: non-narcotic analgesic, antipyretic
PC: analgesic
Action: inhibits prostaglandin synthesis
Use: for pain and fever in infants, children, and adults
Side effects: hepatotoxicity (maximum dose 45/day but more causes damage to the liver)
*No anti-inflammatory properties
*Antidote for overdose: acetylcysteine (Mucomyst)

24

TRAMADOL (Ultram)

TC: centrally acting synthetic opioid
PC: analgesic
Action: binds to mu receptors
Use: for management of moderate to moderately severe pain
Side effect: dizziness

25

CAPSAICIN (Zostrix)

Herbal
Blocks pain
Pain from arthritis
Pain from shingles

26

SUMATRIPTAN (Imitrex)

TC: antimigraine drug
PC: triptan; serotonin receptor agonist, vasocontrictor
Action: vasoconstriction of cerebral arteries
Use: migraine, cluster headache
Side effect: dizziness, drowsiness, warm feeling
*Pregnancy category C
*Shouldn't use more than 2 injections in 24 hours