Pharmacology Exam 3 Drug List Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 3 Drug List Deck (24)
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1

CARBIDOPA/LEVODOPA (Sinemet)

TC: Combination drug for Parkinson's disease
PC: Dopaminergic drug (works to restore the dopamine that is missing)
Action: Levodopa is converted to dopamine in the basal ganglia. Carbidopa prevents peripheral breakdown of Levodopa
Use: Parkinson's and restless leg syndrome
Side effects: involuntary movements of face and tongue

2

DONEPEZIL (Aricept, Aricept ODT)

TC: Alzheimer's disease drug
PC: acetylcholinesterase (breaks down acetylcholine) inhibitor- meaning that this drug allows there to be more acetylcholine in the body
Action: enhances effects of AcH
Use: AD, ADHD
Side effects: nausea, diarrhea, headache, abnormal dreams
*Best taken at bedtime
*Not a cure, just slows progression for about 6 months

3

INTERFERON BETA 1B (Betaseron)

TC: multiple sclerosis agent
PC: biologic response modifier
Action: interacts with immune system and certain types of tcells to stop the destruction of the myelin
Use: to slow progression of disability
Side effect: headache, flu-like symptoms
SubQ every other day
Medications wont make the damage that has already been done any better, but it will stop it from getting worse
Affects the immune system to stop the attack of the myelin

4

CYCLOBENZAPRINE (Flexeril)

TC: centrally-acting skeletal muscle relaxant
PC: catecholamine reuptake inhibitor
Action: depresses motor activity in brainstem so decreases the muscle spasm and decreases pain
Use: muscle spasm
Side Effect: drowsiness, blurred vision, dry mouth, dizziness

5

DANTROLENE SODIUM (Dantrium)

TC: skeletal muscle relaxant
PC: direct-acting antispasmodic, calcium release blocker
Action: interferes with the release of calcium from storage areas inside cells
Use: after spinal injury, cerebral palsy, stroke, MS, given as treatment for malignant hyperthermia can occur during surgeries- you’ll stop giving the drug that caused the thermia and give dantrium instead to reverse it
Side effect: muscle weakness, drowsiness

6

DESOPRESSIN (DDAVP)

TC: Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) replacement
PC: Vasopressin analog
Action: hormone replacement
Use: to control symptoms of DI (diabetes insipidus)
Lack of antidiuretic hormone (diuretic increases urine output) so if they don’t have the antidiuretic they have large amounts of urine output
When that happens you get dilute urine, increases thirst
So this drug is mainly allowing you to hold on to more water
Side effect: signs of water intoxication such as headache

7

LEVOTHYROXINE (Synthroid)

TC: Thyroid hormone
PC: Thyroid hormone replacement
Action: Replacement
Use: hypothyroidism, myxedema coma
Side effects: Overmedication results in signs of hyperthyroidism:
Fast heart rate
Heart palpitations
Weight loss
Pregnancy category A so its okay for pregnant women***

8

PROPYLTHIOURACIL (PTU)

TC: drug for hyperthyroidism
PC: Antithyroid drug
Action: Blocks conversion of T4 into T3
Use: hyperthyroidism, Graves Disease (thyrotoxicosis): the most common type of hyperthyroidism
Side effect: overtreatment results in signs of hypothyroidism:
muscle weakness
weight gain

9

HYDROCORTISONE (Hydrocortone, Solu-cortef)

TC: adrenal hormone
PC: corticosteroid
Action: prevent/suppresses immune reactions
Use: adrenocortical insufficiency, anti-inflammation, immunosuppressive, given after transplants
Side effects: vary depending on dosage and route
topical : rare
systemic : many

10

The action, onset, peak, duration, and administration for HUMALOG (Lispro)

Action: Rapid
Onset: 5-15 min
Peak: 30-60 min
Duration: 3-4 hours
Admin: Subcutaneous 5-10 min before a meal

11

The action, onset, peak, duration, and administration for regular insulin HUMULIN R

Action: Short
Onset: 30-60 min
Peak: 2-4 hours
Duration: 5-7 hours
Admin: Subcutaneous 30-60 min before a meal; IV

12

The action, onset, peak, duration, and administration for HUMULIN N

Action: Intermediate
Onset: 1-2 hours
Peak: 4-12 hours
Duration: 18-24 hours
Admin: Subcutaneous 30 min before first meal of the day and 30 min before supper, if necessary

13

The action, onset, peak, duration, and administration for GLARGINE (Lantus)

Action: Long
Onset: 1.1 hours
Peak: 3-4 hours
Duration: 10-24 hours
Admin: Subcutaneous, once daily, given at the same time each day

14

The action, onset, peak, duration, and administration for DETEMIR (Levemir)

Action: Long
Onset: gradual over 24 hours
Peak: 6-8 hours
Duration: to 24 hours
Admin: Subcutaneous with evening meal or at bedtime

15

METFORMIN (Glucophage)

PC: antidiabetic drug
TC: Biguanide, hypoglycemic drug
Action:
decreases hepatic production of glucose
reduces insulin resistance
does not promote insulin release from the pancreas
Use: T2 DM
Side effect: nausea and vomiting

Preferred for Type 2 DM for effectiveness and safety
Used alone or with insulin
Does not cause hypoglycemia or weight gain
Have to be careful giving this with kidney disease, so must be monitored very closely

16

EXENATIDE (Byetta)

TC: antidiabetic
PC: incretin enhancer (GLP-1 Agonists)
Action: stimulates release of insulin from beta cells
Use: adjunct to diet, exercise in T2 DM
Side effect: nausea, diarrhea, vomiting

Herbal product that helps to lower blood sugar: Cinnamon

17

ORTHO-NOVUM

TC: combination oral contraceptive
PC: combo of estrogen/progestin
Action: provide negative feedback to the pituitary to suppress secretion of LH and FSH; prevents ovulation
Use: to prevent pregnancy, acne, endometriosis, dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Side effect: nausea, breast tenderness, weight gain, breakthrough bleeding, hypertension
Thrombo - blood clot
Thromboembolic- breakthrough blood clot that causes strokes or heart attacks

18

Also known as the "mini pill"
must be taken at or around the same time everyday

Progestin

19

LEVONORGESREL (Plan B)

Also known as the morning after treatment
progestin only
OTC for those 17+
prescription for those younger than 17
Types of Plan B:
Ulipristal acetate (ella) can use up to 5 days after sex
Misoprostol (Cytotec)

20

MEDROXYPROGESTERONE (Depo-provera)

TC: hormone; drug for dysfunctional uterine bleeding
PC: Progestin
Action: inhibits the effect of estrogen on the uterus
Use: dysfunctional uterine bleeding, uterine cancer
Side effect: breast tenderness, increase risk of stroke, 65+ increase risk of dementia

21

Conjugated estrogens (Premarin)

TC: Hormone
PC: Hormone replacement therapy (HRT)
Action: estrogen replacement
Use: For symptoms of menopause
Side effects: Increased risk of:
MI (myocardioinfarction)
stroke
breast cancer
dementia
venous thromboembolism
This is still under investigation

22

TESTOSTERONE (AndroGel)

TC: testosterone
PC: androgen, anabolic steroid, antineoplastic
Not very affective when given orally
Action: stimulates RNS synthesis and protein metabolism
Use: hormone replacement, inoperable breast cancer in women
Side effects: edema, virilization in children and women, acne, increased or decreased libido
Women and children should not come into contact with testosterone, they will develop male characteristics (as easy as touching arms)

23

SILDENAFIL (Viagra)

TC: for treatment of ED
PC: phosphodiesterase (PDE)-5 inhibitor
Action: relaxes smooth muscle in the corpora cavernosa
Use: ED and pulmonary hypertension, relaxes and reduces hypertension
Side effect: flushing, men with heart disease and chest pain taking nitroglycerin could get really low blood pressure, possibly death

24

FINASTERIDE (Propecia, Proscar)

TC: Drug for BPH
PC: 5-alpha reductase inhibitor
Action: inhibits the metabolism of testosterone
Use: BPH to restore urinary function
Propecia promotes hair growth in male pattern baldness
Side effect: sexual dysfunction, but side effects are rare
Women should not come into contact with this drug
Has a tetrogenic action and harmful to male fetus
Men taking this should not donate blood