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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 3 Deck (37)
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1

What are the most common degenerative diseases of the CNS

Parkinson's disease
Multiple sclerosis
Alzheimer's disease

**There are no cures and medications are only used to control the symptoms

2

What are the symptoms of Parkinson's disease?

Bradykinesia
Rigidity
Tremors
Postural instability
Affective flattening

3

The neurochemical basis for Parkinson's

Neurons that produce dopamine die causing an inability to walk as well as many other movement disorders..
Bradykinesia
Rigidity
Tremors
Postural instability
Affective flattening

Acetylcholine??

4

Nurse's role in AD and Parkinson's

??

5

Symptoms of Alzheimer's disease

Memory loss
Confusion
Inability to think or communicate effectively
Brain shrinkage

**symptoms progress from confusion to memory loss to dimentia

6

Amyloid plaques

hardened areas that show up as a result of AD

7

Neurofibrillary tangles

nuerons curl and tangle due to AD

8

Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis

Symptoms depend on the location of the damaged neuron:
Fatigue
Heat sensitivity
Neuropathic pain
Impaired cognitive ability
Highest among women in colder climates

9

Involuntary contraction of a muscle or group of muscles, which become tightened, develop a fixed pattern of resistance, and result in a diminished level of functioning

Muscle spasm

10

Inability of opposing muscle groups to move in a coordinated manner

Spasticity

11

Chemically secreted by endocrine glands that acts as a chemical messenger that circulate through the body to affect homeostasis
Disorders are usually due to too little or too much
They may affect thousands of cells and balance is kept within a normal range
Examples include insulin and thyroid

Hormone

12

A disorder marked by excessive urination due to lack of secretion of antidiuretic hormone

Diabetes Insipidus

13

Also known as myxedema, when you are not getting enough of the hormone and everything slows down
Fairly common
Symptoms are general weakness, muscle cramps, dry skin

Hypothyroidism

14

When you are receiving too much of the thyroid hormone
Symptoms include increased body metabolism or appetite, tachycardia, weight loss, elevated body temperature and blood pressure, nervousness and anxiety
The most common type is known as Graves' disease

Hyperthyroidism

15

A syndrome caused by hypersecretion of the thyroid hormone

Graves' disease

16

An enlarged thyroid gland that can occur with either hyper or hypo thyroid states

Goiter

17

Indications for glucocorticoid medications

Adrenal insufficiency
Allergies – suppress allergic response
Asthma
Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease)
Edema – swelling, part of inflammatory response as well
Cancer
Transplant rejection
Rheumatic disorders
Shock
Skin disorders

18

Signs and symptoms of Cushing's disease (excessive amounts of glucocorticoids)

obesity
“moon” face – face gets round, some has to do with edema because your sodium goes up and body holds onto fluid
“buffalo hump” – hump on their back, can see a change has to do with spine
muscle weakness
reduced healing
hyperglycemia

19

Signs and symptoms of Addison's disease (deficiency of adrenal cortex hormones caused by autoimmune conditions and infections)

bronze pigmentation of skin
changes in distribution of body hair
GI disturbances
weakness
hypoglycemia
postural hypotension
weight loss

20

What is the role of insulin and glucagon

To keep blood glucose levels within narrow limits
insulin- decreases levels
glucagon- increases levels

21

Characteristics of type 1 diabetes mellitus

5% to 10 % of all DM cases
autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells
chronic disease
often occurs early in life
people who’s pancreas made no insulin so they have to be provided with insulin

22

Signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus

Hyperglycemia
Polyuria
Polyphagia
Polydipsia

23

Increased blood glucose level
fasting blood glucose greater than 126 mg/dL on 2 separate occasions

Hyperglycemia

24

Polyuria

excessive urination

25

Polydipsia

thirsty

26

Polyphagia

hungry

27

More common, appears in middle aged adults
Represents 90-95% of people with diabetes
insulin resistant

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

28

Nursing interventions for hypoglycemia

Assess for blood glucose levels below 60-70 mg/dL and blood cell count
Conscious patient: you can get them something to eat or drink such as candy, fruit juice, coke, orange juice, crackers, glucose product
Unconscious patient: do not give anything orally because of the risk for aspiration or interfering with their breathing

29

Signs of hypoglycemia

nausea
paleness
sweating
diaphoretic
tremors
decreased level of consciousness

30

Hormone secreted by the pancreas that increases blood glucose levels which is the opposite of insulin

Glucagon