Pharmacology Exam 6 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 6 Deck (42)
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1

Some kind of organism that can cause disease
Virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans

Pathogen

2

Ability of an organism to cause an infection

Pathogenicity

3

How virulent is can just a small amount cause you to be sick so the strength of it

Virulence

4

How fast can it grow and overcome the bodies resources

Invasivness

5

Slow the growth of the bacteria but don’t totally kill it
Decreasing numbers means your own bodies immune system can fight off the rest

Bacteriostatic

6

Killing bacteria

Bactericidal

7

Setting up a group away from ones place of origin
The human body has areas that are sterile and areas that are _____ with microorganisms.

Colonized

8

Infection acquired by exposure to microbes in a health care setting

Health Care Acquired Infection (HAI)

9

Infection acquired by exposure to microbes in the community

Community acquired infection

10

This problem is made worse by the widespread use of antibiotics
Antibiotics can make the problem worse by killing populations of the bacteria that are sensitive to the drug
Mutations occur spontaneously and randomly
MRSA & VRE

Drug resistance

11

Vancomycin is an antibiotic often used after bacteria have become resistant to other, safer antibiotics, and it is most affective in treating...

MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylcoccus aureus)

12

an allergic reaction to an injection of serum, typically mild and characterized by skin rashes, joint stiffness, and fever.

Serum sickness

13

sensitivity to one substance that renders an individual sensitive to other substances of similar chemical structure.

Cross sensitivity

14

Involves growing a microorganism in the lab

Culture

15

New infection caused by an organism different from the one causing the initial infection, usually a side effect of anti-infective therapy

Superinfection

16

This and CDAD (clostridium difficile associated diarrhea) are the most common forms of health care acquired diarrheal infections. potentially fatal. patients should be isolated.
Risk factors include the use of broad spectrum or high dose antibiotics
Symptoms include abdominal cramping, fever, blood & mucus in the stool, risk for dehydration

PMC (Pseudomembranous colitis)

17

Guidelines for preventing the spread of infection

Use the right drug for the infection
Only use the antibiotics when conditions seem to be necessary
Patients should take all the prescription

18

A highly contagious infection
First invades the lungs
May stay dormant (no symptoms)
Manifestations of infection:
productive cough
hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
night sweats
fever, chills, fatigue
Caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a slow-growing bacillus

Tuberculosis

19

This mycoses affects the scalp, skin, nails, and mucous membranes such as the oral cavity and vagina.
In most cases the fungus invades only the surface layers of these regions.
Often treated with topical drugs because the incidence rate is much lower with this route

Superficial mycoses (Fungal infection)

20

This mycoses affects the internal organs, typically the lungs, brain, and digestive organs.
Much less common than superficial mycoses.
This infects multiple body systems and are sometimes fatal to patients with suppressed immune systems.
Requires aggressive oral or parenteral medications

Systemic mycoses (Fungal infection)

21

Infection caused by caused by the human immunodeficiency virus
Profound immunosuppression results in infections and malignancies

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

22

Antiretroviral drugs slow the growth of this causative agent for AIDS
Causes AIDS
Enters the cells and targets CD4 cells

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

23

Resistance to drugs is a problem
There is no cure
Diagnosis: rapid tests in ER or home
Another transmission is from mother to child
HIV1- United States
HIV2- Africa

HIV-AIDS

24

a viral enzyme that converts the host RNA to viral DNA

Reverse transcriptase

25

the measurement of the amount of HIV
RNA in the plasma
One of the two lab tests to guide pharmacotherapy of antiretroviral drugs

Viral load

26

Drugs used to treat HIV infections

Antiretroviral

27

Drug therapy for HIV infection that includes high doses of multiple medications given concurrently
Drugs must be taken for life
A mother is placed on this if diagnosed with HIV before the 14th week of pregnancy

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)

28

Any preventive medical treatment started immediately after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent infection by the pathogen and the development of disease.
A combination of 2 drugs over a 4 week period

Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP)

29

Goals for antiretroviral (treat HIV infections) therapy

(Therapy with antiretroviral is started when the CD4 T-cell count falls below 200 cells/mcL or when AIDS symptoms become apparent)

Improve survival and reduce morbidity
Improve quality of life
Restore and preserve immunologic function
Promote maximum suppression of viral load
Prevent transmission from mother to child

30

viral infection characterized by acute symptoms that include sore throat, sneezing, coughing, fever, and chills

Influenza