Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 6 Deck (42)
Some kind of organism that can cause disease
Virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans
Ability of an organism to cause an infection
How virulent is can just a small amount cause you to be sick so the strength of it
How fast can it grow and overcome the bodies resources
Slow the growth of the bacteria but don’t totally kill it
Decreasing numbers means your own bodies immune system can fight off the rest
Setting up a group away from ones place of origin
The human body has areas that are sterile and areas that are _____ with microorganisms.
Infection acquired by exposure to microbes in a health care setting
Health Care Acquired Infection (HAI)
Infection acquired by exposure to microbes in the community
Community acquired infection
This problem is made worse by the widespread use of antibiotics
Antibiotics can make the problem worse by killing populations of the bacteria that are sensitive to the drug
Mutations occur spontaneously and randomly
MRSA & VRE
Vancomycin is an antibiotic often used after bacteria have become resistant to other, safer antibiotics, and it is most affective in treating...
MRSA (Methicillin-resistant Staphylcoccus aureus)
an allergic reaction to an injection of serum, typically mild and characterized by skin rashes, joint stiffness, and fever.
sensitivity to one substance that renders an individual sensitive to other substances of similar chemical structure.
Involves growing a microorganism in the lab
New infection caused by an organism different from the one causing the initial infection, usually a side effect of anti-infective therapy
This and CDAD (clostridium difficile associated diarrhea) are the most common forms of health care acquired diarrheal infections. potentially fatal. patients should be isolated.
Risk factors include the use of broad spectrum or high dose antibiotics
Symptoms include abdominal cramping, fever, blood & mucus in the stool, risk for dehydration
PMC (Pseudomembranous colitis)
Guidelines for preventing the spread of infection
Use the right drug for the infection
Only use the antibiotics when conditions seem to be necessary
Patients should take all the prescription
A highly contagious infection
First invades the lungs
May stay dormant (no symptoms)
Manifestations of infection:
hemoptysis (coughing up blood)
fever, chills, fatigue
Caused by the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a slow-growing bacillus
This mycoses affects the scalp, skin, nails, and mucous membranes such as the oral cavity and vagina.
In most cases the fungus invades only the surface layers of these regions.
Often treated with topical drugs because the incidence rate is much lower with this route
Superficial mycoses (Fungal infection)
This mycoses affects the internal organs, typically the lungs, brain, and digestive organs.
Much less common than superficial mycoses.
This infects multiple body systems and are sometimes fatal to patients with suppressed immune systems.
Requires aggressive oral or parenteral medications
Systemic mycoses (Fungal infection)
Infection caused by caused by the human immunodeficiency virus
Profound immunosuppression results in infections and malignancies
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
Antiretroviral drugs slow the growth of this causative agent for AIDS
Enters the cells and targets CD4 cells
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Resistance to drugs is a problem
There is no cure
Diagnosis: rapid tests in ER or home
Another transmission is from mother to child
HIV1- United States
a viral enzyme that converts the host RNA to viral DNA
the measurement of the amount of HIV
RNA in the plasma
One of the two lab tests to guide pharmacotherapy of antiretroviral drugs
Drugs used to treat HIV infections
Drug therapy for HIV infection that includes high doses of multiple medications given concurrently
Drugs must be taken for life
A mother is placed on this if diagnosed with HIV before the 14th week of pregnancy
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)
Any preventive medical treatment started immediately after exposure to a pathogen (such as a disease-causing virus), in order to prevent infection by the pathogen and the development of disease.
A combination of 2 drugs over a 4 week period
Postexposure prophylaxis (PEP)
Goals for antiretroviral (treat HIV infections) therapy
(Therapy with antiretroviral is started when the CD4 T-cell count falls below 200 cells/mcL or when AIDS symptoms become apparent)
Improve survival and reduce morbidity
Improve quality of life
Restore and preserve immunologic function
Promote maximum suppression of viral load
Prevent transmission from mother to child