Pharmacology Exam 4 Drug List Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 4 Drug List Deck (19)
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1

Atorvastatin (Lipitor)

TC: antihyperlipidemic
PC: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, statin
Action: inhibit HMG-CoA reductase so the liver makes less cholesterol and lowers LDL levels
Use: reduce risk of myocardial infarction and stroke
Side effect: diarrhea or constipation, muscle pain or intestinal cramping, or headaches
Well tolerated
Best in the evening
**Statins: take with evening meal, avoid grapefruit juice
**Pregnancy category X

2

Cholestyramine (Questran)

TC: antihyperlipidemic
PC: Bile acid sequestrant
**Bile acid sequestrants:
take before meals with plenty of fluids
take other medications 2 hrs before or 4 hours after this one
Action: binds with bile acids containing cholesterol, its excreted in the feces, and cholesterol levels decline due to fecal loss
Use: to lower cholesterol
Side effect: bloating, gas, constipation, nausea
*Between 60-100 ml, stir it up and drink it
*Take with plenty of fluids
*Taken orally and stays in the intestines so its not absorbed

3

Furosemide (Lasix)

TC: drug for heart failure and HTN
PC: diuretic (loop type)
Action: Prevents the reabsorption of NaCl and water in the loop of Henle
Can be used for patients with severe heart failure because it works (diuresis begins in 5 minutes) really fast with an IV
Use: to remove large amounts of fluid
Side effect: low potassium levels (hypokalemia)
Heart needs potassium to obtain the correct rhythm
*Drop in blood pressure
*Othostatic hypotension
Watch for: thirst, dry mouth, weight loss
ototoxicity

4

Hydrochlorothiazide (Macrozide)

*Most widely prescribed diuretic for HTN
TC: drug for hypertension and edema
PC: thiazide diuretic
Action: diuresis when renal function is not impaired prevent reabsorption of water
Use: hypertension, heart failure
Side effect: electrolyte imbalance, hypokalemia
Don’t take at bedtime, take early in the day to prevent nocturia
*Still monitor potassium
Nursing: monitor b/p, caution patients to stand up slowly

5

Spirolactone (Aldactone)

TC: drug for hypertension and edema
PC: potassium sparing diuretic, aldosterone antagonist
Action: blocks the action of aldosterone and promotes sodium and water excretion and spares K+
Use: mild hypertension
Side effects: dehydration, hyperkalemia
Take meds in the morning, just NOT at bedtime
Give with food to increase the absorption of the drug

6

Dextran 40

TC: Plasma volume expander
PC: Colloid
Action: causes fluids to move from the tissues into the blood stream
Use: to increase BP, increase cardiac output, improve venous return to the heart
Give it a lot for shock or hemorrhage in the military
Side effect: fluid overload and that stresses their heart so vital signs need to be monitored while on Dextran 40 especially blood pressure because expansion of the plasma volume can cause HTN

7

Potassium chloride

TC: Drug for hypokalemia
PC: Electrolyte, potassium supplement
Action: intracellular, required for nerve impulses
Use: treatment/prevention of hypokalemia
With drinking route (and make sure there is plenty of water because drug can cause peptic ulcers and water will help to prevent them) make sure the patient is upright to prevent esophagitis, taking it with food might help
With peptic or stomach ulcers taking it with food might help as well
Always monitor potassium levels before giving potassium
Side effect: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.. possible hyperkalemia
*No more than 10 mEq/hour
*Never given IV push

8

Sodium Bicarbonate

TC: drug to treat acidosis or bicarbonate deficiency
PC: electrolyte
Action: raises pH of body fluids
Use: Correction of acidosis (low pH)
Side effect: FEW confusion due to alkalosis (high pH)

pH must be kept in the range of 7.35-7.45
Usually given IV to keep this range

9

Enalapril (Vasotec)

TC: hypertension and heart failure
PC: ACE (angiotensin converting enzyme) Inhibitor
Action: block the production of angiotensin II (vasoconstrictor: raises BP) by inhibiting it would lower BP
Use: hypertension
Side effects:
first-dose orthostatic hypotension
irritating cough
Rash
Itching
Angioedema: swelling of the lips, face, or throat
Could possibly block off airways
African Americans don’t respond well to ace inhibitors
Better if combined with a diuretic
***Shouldn’t be given during pregnancy because ACE inhibitors could cause fetal injury and death
“prils”

10

Nifedipine (Procardia)

TC: drug for hypertension and angina
PC: Calcium channel blocker
Action: block the calcium channels and promote vasodilatation
Uses: angina and hypertension
*allows a fall in blood pressure
Side Effect: headache, peripheral edema
Shouldn’t be taken with grape fruit juice

11

Doxazosin (Cardura)

TC: drug for hypertension and BPH
PC: Alpha1-adrenergic blocker
Action: Lower BP directly by blocking sympathetic receptors in arterioles.. relaxes smooth muscles
Use: see above
Side effect: orthostatic hypotension, fatigue, nausea

12

Hydralazine (Apresoline)

TC: Hypertension and heart failure
PC: Direct acting vasodilator
Action: acts on arterial smooth muscle
Use: see above
Side effects: Reflex tachycardia, sodium and water retention

13

Lisinopril (Zestril)

TC: for heart failure and HTN
PC: ACE Inhibitor
Action: 2 primary actions:
lower peripheral resistance (decrease BP)
inhibit aldosterone secretion (reduce blood volume)
Use: Slow progression of HF and reduce mortality from this disease
Side effect: cough

14

Digoxin (Lanoxin)

TC: drug for heart failure
PC: Cardiac Glycoside
Action: affects ion movement across cell membranes causing a more forceful contraction (inotrope) and slowing heart rate
Use: heart failure, dysrhythmias (atrial fibrillation)
Side effects: dysrhythmias, anorexia, headache, dizziness
Can be given IV or PO
Given to adults and kids
Slows heart rate and causes more forceful contractions
Dependent on potassium levels, so low potassium could make it not work as well

Check the pulse rate and heart rhythm before each dose, hold if:
< 60 beats per minute (adult)
< 70 beats per minute (child)
< 90 beats per minute (infants)
Administer IV lanoxin over 5 minutes
Administer at the same time daily, slow IV push
Therapeutic effects: improvement in edema, shortness of breath, anxiety

Digoxin immune fab (Digibind) : Used to treat digitalis toxicity
Binds up digitalis so it cant work (used for overdose)

15

Metoprolol (Lopressor)

TC: drug for heart failure and HTN
PC: Beta-adrenergic blocker
Action: beta blockade in the heart and conduction system
Uses: hypertension, angina, heart failure
other uses: stage fright, migraine headache
Side effects: bradycardia, decreased cardiac output
“olol” (looks like backward bb)
Assessments for a betablocker:
Checking HR
Checking BP (orthostatic hypotension)
Can cause sexual dysfunction

16

Nitroglycerine

TC: antianginal drug
PC: Organic nitrate, vasodilator
Action: dilates coronary arteries
Use: prevention/relief of angina
**Taken while acute angina is in progress or prior to physical activity
Adverse effects:
headache, orthostatic hypotension, reflex tachycardia, tolerance
Interacts with: sildenafil (Viagra) & alcohol

17

Atenolol (Tenormin)

TC: antianginal
PC: beta-adrenergic blocker
Action: blocks beta receptors in cardiac tissue
Use: angina and hypertension
Side effect: hypotension, feeling cold
*Frequently prescribed because it is relatively safe
Black Box Warning: do not stop suddenly

18

Diltiazem (Cardizem)

TC: antianginal drug
PC: Calcium Channel Blocker
Action: inhibits the transport of calcium into myocardial cells, brings more oxygen, reduces cardiac workload/output
Use: angina, hypertension, dysrhythmias
Side effect: peripheral edema, dizziness

19

Reteplase (Retavase)

TC: drug for dissolving blood clots
PC: Thrombolytic
Action: degrades fibrin clot within a thrombosis
Use: to dissolve clots that are obstructing the coronary arteries
Side effect: bleeding

Most effective when administered within 20 minutes to 12 hours after the onset of symptoms