Pharmacology Exam 5 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 5 Deck (62)
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1

a condition in which vital tissues and organs are not receiving enough blood to function properly.
General term: heart is not able to pump enough around the body to provide for the body

Shock

2

A shock that occurs by an extreme acute allergic reaction

Anaphylactic

3

A shock that occurs because the heart cannot pump enough to pump the needs of the body, extreme form of heart failure, 80-100% die

Cardiogenic

4

A shock that occurs because of low volume, blood or fluid loss, after a trauma

Hypovolemic

5

A type of shock that occurs after trauma to the spine, has to do with impulses or overstimulation of the parasympathetic nervous system and that causes vasodilation

Neurogenic

6

A type of shock that occurs with some kind of organism in the blood stream, bacterial, fungal, reaction of tissues, lead to decreased blood pressure

Septic

7

What is the initial way to treat shock

Treated as a medical emergency
Rapid identification is important

**ABC’s
***Airway, breathing, circulation

Cardiac monitor
Pulse oximetry
Arterial line
Oxygen up to 15 L/min

8

The most serious challenge in most types of shock and what a lot of the drugs are used to treat

Hypotension

9

other than normal rhythm, abnormal rhythm of the heart

Dysrhythmias or arrhythmias

10

Dysrhythmias or arrhythmias if they originate in the atria

Supraventricular (if they originate in the ventricle its much more serious)

11

the ability of the specialized cells to respond to the electrical impulses

Excitability

12

conduct the electrical impulse

Conductivity

13

ability of the cells to make their own electrical impulse even without external nerve stimulus

Automaticity

14

Also known as the pacemaker of the heart, has the properties of automaticity, small area of tissue in the wall of the right atrium

SA (sinoatrial) node
60-100 beats/min

15

A back up for the SA node

AV node
40-60 beats/min

16

network that starts at the atria and goes through the ventricles

Purkinje network of fibers

17

Carry impulses through the heart

bundle branches

18

how electrical impulses affects the surrounding cells and they all contract at the same time and that happens by movements of ions across the membrane

Depolarization

19

when they all line up to do it again

Repolarization

20

This type of cell contains more potassium inside the cell and less calcium and sodium outside of the cell and this imbalance causes a negative charge

Polarized

21

The action potential begins when..

sodium ion channels allow sodium (Na+) into the cell

22

When the sodium ion channels and calcium ion channels allow Na and Ca into the cell, _____ occurs due to loss of membrane potential

Depolarization

23

Ensures that the myocardial cell finishes contracting before a second action potential begins

Refractory period

24

Essential to protect the body from blood loss

Clotting

25

The process of forming an insoluble clot

Coagulating/coagulation

26

The process of stopping blood flow

Hemostasis

27

Converts the clotting factor prothrombin to an enzyme called thrombin. Thrombin then converts fibrinogen (a plasma protein) to long strands of fibrin. The fibrin provides a framework for the clot

Prothrombin activator

28

The process of clot removal

fibrinolysis

29

A stationary clot that usually forms in a vessel and just gets bigger as more fibrin is added

Thrombus

30

converts plasminogen (present in the fibrin clot) into plasmin

Tissue plasminogen activator (TPA)