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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 4 Deck (57)
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1

Describe the route of blood through the heart

From the vena cavas then through:
Right atrium
Tricuspid valve
Right ventricle
Pulmonic valve
Pulmonary artery- only artery that carries un-oxygenated blood
Lungs
Pulmonary veins- oxygenated blood is returned through this vein
Left atrium
Mitral valve (3)
Left ventricle
Aortic valve
Aorta

2

Brings blood from the head to the heart

Superior vena cava

3

Brings blood from the body to the heart

Inferior vena cava

4

Only artery that carries un-oxygenated blood

Pulmonary artery: goes to the lungs and gets oxygen

5

After the pulmonary artery receives the oxygen from the lungs, it brings the oxygen back to the heart through the..

Pulmonary veins

6

Sac that encloses the heart on the outside

Pericardium

7

Muscular part of the heart, thick layer, left ventricle has a thicker one because it pumps harder and farther because it pumps to the rest of the body while the right only pumps to the lungs

Myocardium

8

Build up of fat in the arteries

Atherosclerosis

9

Lipid carrying particle in the blood that contains high amounts of protein and lower amounts of cholesterol; good cholesterol

High density lipoprotein (HDL)

10

Lipid carrying particle that contains relatively low amounts of protein and high amounts of cholesterol; bad cholesterol

Low density lipoprotein (LDL)

11

High levels of lipids or fats in the blood

Hyperlipidemia

12

Breakdown of muscle fibers usually due to muscle trauma or ischemia

Rhabdomyolysis

13

Functions of the kidneys

regulate fluid balance
electrolyte composition
acid-base balance of body fluids
secrete renin (regulation of blood pressure)
secrete erythropoietin (red blood cell production)
produce calcitriol (active form of vitamin D)

14

Sudden loss of renal failure thats usually irreversible

Acute renal failure (ARF)

15

Gradual loss of renal function that occurs overtime, is irreversible, scar tissue replaces the nephrons
Big in diabetics and people with hypertension

Chronic renal failure (CRF)

16

Medications with renal failure..

Administering the "average" dose of medication to a patient in severe renal failure can have fatal consequences

17

Drugs that increase renal excretion of water, sodium, and other electrolytes, thereby increasing urine formation and output

Used for hypertension, heart failure, kidney disease

Diuretics

18

Potassium levels less than 3.5 mEq/L

Hypokalemia
Monitor weight
Avoid administration late in the day
Stand up slowly
Monitor I & O in the hospital

19

Potassium levels greater than 5 mEq/L

Hyperkalemia
Monitor weight
Avoid administration late in the day
Stand up slowly
Monitor I & O in the hospital

20

Small, charged molecules essential for homeostasis

Electrolytes

21

Too little or too many electrolytes..

Can result in serious complications

22

Excess sodium with signs and symptoms

Hypernatremia
more than 145 mEq/L
often due to kidney pathology
Symptoms: thirst, fatigue, weakness, muscle twitching, decreased level on consciousness
Treat: with low sodium diets
Measure sodium in the blood to see how much less they need
Can give with IV fluids

23

Depletion of sodium with signs and symptoms

Hyponatremia
less than 135 mEq/L
Losses through skin, GI tract, or kidneys
Most often occurs with diarrhea or burns
Symptoms: diarrhea, vomiting, confusion, coma
Treat: with sodium chloride

24

Normal range for potassium

3.5-5 mEq/L
high or low potassium can cause heart irregularities
diuretics wash out water which washes out potassium
Hyper/Hypokalemia associated with fatal dysrhythmias and serious neuromuscular disorders
Foods high in potassium: bananas, citrus fruits, peanut butter

25

Normal range for sodium

0.9% NS
3% is used very carefully in an ICU or with someone who is severely hyponatremic
wherever salt goes, water goes, so if you have more sodium in your body then you're going to retain more water as well

26

High blood pressure

Hypertension

27

Causes of hypertension or high BP

Obesity, lack of exercise, smoking, family history, African Americans, those with diabetes, aging, stress

28

Classifications/stages of hypertension

Normal:
Systolic/Diastolic = BP 119/79 or less

Prehypertension:
SBP 120-139 or DBP 80- 89

Stage 1 hypertension:
SBP 140-159 or DBP 90-99

Stage 2 hypertension:
SBP greater than 160 or DBP 100 or more

29

3 factors that affect blood pressure

Cardiac output
Peripheral resistance
Total amount of blood/blood volume you have in those vessels

30

The amount of blood pumped by the ventricle in 1 minute

Cardiac output