Pharmacology Exam 5 Drug List Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pharmacology Exam 5 Drug List Deck (24)
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1

Normal serum albumin

TC: IV fluid replacement for hypovolemic shock
PC: Blood product, colloid
Action: increases the oncotic pressure of the blood
Use: to restore plasma volume (add volume into their vessels), increase BP
Side effects: fluid overload
Largest iv needle that you can

2

Norepinephrine (Levophed)

TC: drug for shock, low blood pressure states
PC: Vasopressor
Adrenergic agonist
Action: acts immediately on receptors in smooth muscle to increase BP
Use: shock, low blood pressure states
Side effect: continuously monitor BP, avoid extravasation (leaking into the tissues?)
Continuously monitor blood pressure
Code blue drug

3

Dopamine (Intropin)

TC: drug for shock
PC: Inotropic drug
Action: nonselective adrenergic agonist, makes heart pump stronger
Use: hypotension, shock
Side effect: headache, tachycardia
Code blue drug

4

Epinephrine (Adrenalin)

TC: drug for anaphylaxis and shock
PC: adrenergic agonist; vasopressor
Action: stimulates both alpha and beta receptors
Use: anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, asthma, helps with constricted airways
Side effect: increased heart rate and BP
Code blue

5

Procainamide (Pronestyl)

TC: Class 1A Antidysrhythmic
PC: sodium channel blocker
Action: blocks sodium ion channels and slows conduction
Use: treatment of life-threatening dysrhythmias
Side effect: N/V
Premature ventricular contraction- an extra beat (PVC)

6

Propranolol (Inderal)

TC: Class II antidysrhythmic
PC: Beta-Adrenergic Blocker
Action: blocks beta receptors
Use: Used in the treatment of fast heart rates that come from the top part of the heart
Adverse effects: hypotension, bradycardia, heart failure, fatigue

Mnemonic: olol = bb = beta blocker

7

Amiodarone (Cordarone)

TC: Class III antidysrhythmic
PC: Potassium Channel Blockers
Action: Prolong the action potential and refractory period of the cardiac cycle
Use: Used for treatment of ventricular tachycardias (VT) & Atrial fibrillation
Adverse effects: pulmonary toxicity, bradycardia, visual disturbances

8

Verapamil (Calan)

TC: Class IV antidysrhythmic
PC: Calcium Channel Blockers
Action: Depress depolarization and decrease oxygen demand of the heart
Use: Used in the treatment of rapid heart rates in the top part of the heart (supraventricular)
Side effect: swelling, dizziness, some constipation
Should not stop calcium channel blockers suddenly
Angina

9

Adenosine (Adenocard)

TC: cardiac agent, diagnostic aid
PC: antidysrhythmic
Action: slow impulse formation in SA node and slows conduction through the AV node
Use: to treat supraventricular tachycardias (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome)
Side effect: facial flushing

10

Heparin sodium

TC: anticoagulant
PC: indirect thrombin inhibitor
Action: binds to anti-thrombin III and inactivates several clotting factors, keeps it from getting bigger
Use: DVT, PE, MI
Given IQ and SQ (into the center of the abdomen), not taken at home
Side effect:
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT)
Patients form clots in their legs and use up all their platelets, they clump and are spread out so they have a decrease in the number of platelets
2 types
Itching, bleeding, bruising when given SubQ into the abdomen

Reversal agent for heparin: protamine sulfate

11

Enoxaparin (Lovenox)

TC: Low molecular weight heparin
PC: anticoagulant, does not change aPtt
Action: potentiates antithrombin III, inactivates clotting factor Xa
Use: prevention of post-op DVT
Side effect: injection site bruising
Injected or IV

12

Warfarin (Coumadin)

TC: oral anticoagulant
PC: Vitamin K antagonist
Rat poisoning
Action: inhibits action of vitamin K so clotting factors are diminished
Uses: Treatment of venous thrombosis
Atrial fibrillation
Prevention of MI, stroke
Side effect: aspirin can increase risk of bleeding
Cabage, broccoli, etc, high in vitamin K so stay away from them

Reversal agent: Vitamin K (Mephyton)
Pregnancy category X
Frequent blood draws
PT and INR used to measure vitamin K

13

Dabigatran (Pradaxa)

TC: thrombin inhibitor
PC: anticoagulant
Action: direct thrombin inhibitor
Use: reduce risk of stroke, embolism in atrial fibrillation
Side effect: dyspepsia (heartburn)

no blood work required

14

Clopidogrel (Plavix):

TC: antiplatelet drug
PC: ADP receptor blocker
Action: inhibits platelet aggregation by binding to receptor
Use: often used after MI or stroke to prevent a 2nd event stents, prevention of DVT
Side effect: flu-like symptoms, bleeding

Aspirin (ASA): 81 mg or 325 mg/day is antiplatelet dose

15

Alteplase (Activase):

TC: drug for dissolving clots that are formed
PC: thrombolytic
Action: converts plasminogen to plasmin, which dissolves fibrin clots
Use: treatment of strokes, patency of IV catheters
Side effect: bleeding
No head injury, no one who is bleeding, no aspirin with it

16

Aminocaproic Acid (Amicar)

TC: clot stabilizer, we want them to clot
PC: Hemostatic
Action: inactivates plasminogen
Use: reduces postoperative bleeding, can lower BP a little bit
Side effect: use cautiously with patients with a history of clotting

17

Epoetin alfa (Epogen, Procrit)

TC: erythropoiesis-stimulating drug
PC: Erythropoietin
Action:
stimulates the production of erythrocytes (red blood cells)
stimulates the production of hemoglobin
Use: anemia related to chronic renal failure
Side effect: serious risk of clotting causing stroke, DVT, pulmonary embolus, heart attack
Red blood cells carry oxygen so athletes use this to increase their athletic performance/how much they can exercise
Cancer patients
Can admin subQ or IV but usually subQ
3 times a week

18

Filgrastim (Neupogen)

TC: drug for increasing neutrophil production
PC: Colony-stimulating factor
Action: stimulate the bone marrow to produce neutrophils
Use: to help the patient fight infection, white blood cells
Side effect: bone pain
When WBC count falls you're at risk for infection
Can be treated with acetaminophen or an opioid
IV or SubQ
Monitor WBC count and for signs of infection

19

Cyanocobalamin

TC: drug for anemia
PC: vitamin supplement
Action: B 12 is essential for actively growing and dividing cells
Use: for vitamin B12 deficiency
Side effect: uncommon
Treatment for anemia
Pernicious anemia- cells don’t fully mature?
Often subQ by injection
Intranasal forms of the drug

Oral effective only if the patient has Intrinsic factor

20

Ferrous sulfate (Feosol)

TC: antianemic drug
PC: iron supplement
Action: replacement
Use: Iron deficiency anemia, GI bleeding pregnancy and menses
Should take on empty stomach, take about an hour before eating, but you can give it with food, just better on empty
NO MILK
Liquid forms of iron especially given to children can stain teeth so use a straw
Iron OD an issue
Side effect: nausea (common), severe poisoning in OD

21

Hepatitis B Vaccine

TC: Vaccine
PC: Vaccine
Action: stimulates the immune system
Use: Given to provide active immunity in individuals who are at risk for Hepatitis B virus
Side effect: pain at injection site
Give most vaccines in the deltoid

Have epinephrine 1:1000 available in case of an anaphylactic reaction

22

Interferon alfa-2b

TC: Immunostimulant
PC: biologic response modifer
Action: attach to unaffected cells and protect them modulate the immune system
Use: cancers, viral infections such as HPV, hepatitis B & C
Side effects: flu-like syndrome, fatigue

23

Cyclosporine (Sandimmune)

TC: immunosuppressant
PC: calcineurin inhibitor
Action: inhibits helper T cells
Use: to prevent transplant rejection, psoriasis, Ulcerative colitis, dampen immune response
Side Effect: affects the kidneys, decrease in urine output ½ of the patients who take this drug will develop hypertension and tremor

24

PredniSONE (Deltasone)

Used for:
autoimmune disorders
shock
head trauma
allergies
organ transplant