Flashcards in Physical exam of the dog and cat - extra reading Deck (30):
What might a plantigrade stance suggest?
Head hanging in cats may indicate?
3 causes of fat pet
overfed, hypothyroid or inactive
2 causes for thin pets
hyperthyroid or cachetic (a syndrome characterised by loss of skeletal muscle mass, with or without loss of fat mass)
How is oedema classified?
-generalised or localised to one limb or region or associated with abdominal fluid
-pitting, cold, warm or oozing in nature
Indoor pets should not have FBs in their coat (fleas (dirt), ticks, other ectoparasites etc). True or false?
Is pain on dorsi/ventroflexion or lateral movement of the head a problem?
What may be relevant to a brief cranial nerve exam?
The way the pet holds its jaw close, the function both of sensation and of motor ability of the maxillary muscles and the appearance of the eyes. Monitoring for superficial and deep changes within the eyeballs and periorbital region extends this process.
How is tear production assessed?
Schirmer tear test
What is often the 'mass' that owners report when their animal has lost muscle weight in face?
Temporal muscle atrophy reveals the occipital bone
How can airflow through the nares be assessed?
Contralateral compression of the nares or animal breathing onto a metal surface.
what are the teeth examined for?
calculus, caries, fractures, displacement, discolouration
what must you check for in first time examination of kitten/puppy?
Cleft palate and other congenital abnormalities
where the top of the back is excessively rounded
peritoneal-pericardial diaphragmatic hernia. may be associated with deformities of the xiphoid region of the sternum (you may be able to insert finger into thoracic cavity and touch heart)
Point of maximal intesnity (of the heart) This is normally over the left 4th to 6th intercoastal space at the level of the costochondral junction. Deviations imply cardiac or thoracic cavity diseases.
How does the penis of neutered and non-neutered tomcats differ?
Neutered tomcats have small to no spines present on the penis, in contrast to intact tomcats.
What might you palpate when examining the abdomen from behind versus laterally?
BEHIND: bilateral changes, kidney assessment, mid-abdominal masses
LATERAL: indication of hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, bladder stones or enlarged bladder.
4 general causes of abdominal enlargement
fluid or fat accumulation, muscle laxity, abdominal organ enlargement. Determine using gentle ballotment.
What can easily be palpated in the cat/small dog? 4
intestines, spleen, bladder, kidneys
What does an enlarged spleen suggest in cats?
mast cell disease, lymphoma or other neoplastic disease
What does a large irregular spleen in dogs suggest?
strongly suggests hemangiosarcoma although there are other causes too
DDx for abdominal pain
referred spinal pain, abdominal pain, generalised pain, discomfort. needs correlation with lab tests and clinical signs.
When can you palpate the right kidney of the dog?
When enlarged or displayed (you can normally palpate the left kidney)
what are love handles?
symmetric enlargement of the lumbar muscles and fat pads
what do you identify on a normal rectal exam?
-symmetric, bilobed, non-painful rubbery textured prostate gland with a median raphe
-peripheral tissue should evoke no pain or irregularity
-anal sacks (4 and 8 o'clock positions)
-(rectal prolapse vs ileo-colic intussusception)
what must be examined prior to examining the limbs?
the head and neck - particularly in larger breeds of dog, cervical conditions cause neck guarding and failure to thrive, with nondescript signs of pain, lameness and malaise.
a condition in which cramping pain in the leg is induced by exercise, typically caused by obstruction of the arteries.
Panosteitis is a bone disease of dogs that is characterized by bone proliferation and remodeling.