Reading: Music and the Enlightenment, the Symphony, and the Classical Concerto Flashcards Preview

J - MUSIC 101 > Reading: Music and the Enlightenment, the Symphony, and the Classical Concerto > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reading: Music and the Enlightenment, the Symphony, and the Classical Concerto Deck (45)
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1

Where did Classical music develop?

Vienna, Austria.

2

Joseph II is known as an "___" ruler.

Enlightened.

3

Who are the two French philosophers associated with the Enlightenment?

Voltaire and Rousseau.

4

What did Thomas Jefferson write concerning the Enlightenment?

"Life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness."

5

Rococo

A mid-eighteenth century style that was light and often frothy.

6

Divertimento

An 18th-century genre of light instrumental music, designed for entertainment.

7

The Classical era of music focused on...

Music as entertainment.

8

What became the most progressive operatic form in the latter part of the eighteenth century?

Opera buffa.

9

The opera of the Classical period can be compared to the ___ of the literary genre.

Novel.

10

Were concerts the sole source of income for most Classical musicians?

No, they still relied on court patronage, the opera house, and the church.

11

What are the two concepts needed to understand Classical music?

- Natural.
- Pleasing variety.

12

True or false? Classical music has a rigid rhythmic quality.

False.

13

True or false? There was more variation in dynamics in the Classical period.

True.

14

What led to the increased variety in dynamics in the Classical period?

The pianoforte (piano).

15

What was the role of the woodwinds in the Classical orchestra as opposed to in the Baroque orchestra?

Were included all the time instead of for just festive occasions. Added pleasing variety, strengthened the strings.

16

Describe the composition of a Classical orchestra:

Strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion (2 timpani).

17

What were Classical melodies like?

Simple, more like popular music. Gave you something to hum along to.

18

What is the primary texture of the classical period?

Homophony.

19

There was a drive towards ___ in texture in the Classical period.

Simplicity.

20

What is special about themes in Classical music?

- They are repeated immediately after first appearance.
- They are led into in a distinctive manner.
- They are closed off just as distinctly.

21

___ cadences are a characteristic of Classical music.

Multiple.

22

What are the most important forms of the Classical period?

Sonata form, minuet form, rondo form, and theme and variations form.

23

Symphony

A large orchestral piece in several movements.

24

First movement of a typical Classical symphony:

Substantial piece in fast or moderate tempo. Sometimes preceded by short but solemn introduction in slower tempo.

25

Second movement of a typical Classical symphony:

Slow tempo and quiet mood.

26

Third movement of a typical Classical symphony:

Minuet and trio. Persistent dance rhythms, moderately paced dance in triple meter.

27

Fourth movement of a typical Classical symphony:

Fast. May be in sonata form, but rondo is more common.

28

Sonata Form

A form developed by the Classical composers and used in almost all of the first movements of their symphonies, sonatas, etc.

29

The A section in a sonata form is called the ___.

Exposition.

30

The B section in a sonata form is called the ___.

Development.

31

The A' section in a sonata form is called the ___.

Recapitulation.

32

Exposition

(1) The first section of a fugue; (2) the first section of a sonata-form movement.

33

First Theme

In sonata form, a motive or tune (or a series of them) in the tonic key that opens the exposition section.

34

Bridge

In sonata form, the section of music that comes between the first theme and the second group and makes the modulation, also called transition.

35

Second Group

In sonata form, the group of themes following the bridge, in the second key.

36

Second Theme

In sonata form, one theme that is the most prominent among the second group of themes in the exposition.

37

Cadence Theme

In sonata form, the final conclusive theme in the exposition.

38

Development

(1) The process of expanding themes and short motives into larger sections of music; (2) the second section of a sonata-form movement, which features the development process.

39

Retransition

In sonata form, the passage leading from the end of the development section into the beginning of the recapitulation section.

40

Recapitulation

The third section of a sonata-form movement.

41

Coda

The concluding section of a piece or a movement, after the main elements of the form have been presented. Codas are common in sonata form.

42

Form of the Classical concerto:

Long opening movements and no minuet movements. Opening, slow, and closing movements.

43

Double Exposition Form

A type of sonata form developed for use in concertos.

44

Orchestra Exposition

In Classical concerto form, the first of tow expositions, played by the orchestra without the soloist.

45

Solo Exposition

In Classical concerto form, the second of two expositions, played by the soloist and the orchestra.

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