Reading: The Late Twentieth Century Flashcards Preview

J - MUSIC 101 > Reading: The Late Twentieth Century > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reading: The Late Twentieth Century Deck (34):
1

The music of the late Twentieth Century was a reaction to the...

Avant-garde.

2

What were the two musical forces in the late Twentieth Century?

- An effort to "serialize" music (rhythm, dynamics, timbre).
- A relinquishing of control towards chance music.

3

The Unanswered Question by Ives is a form of ___ music.

Chance.

4

What was used as new sound materials in the late Twentieth Century?

- Hissing, grunts, and noises by singers.
- Odd sounds made with instruments, such as multiphonics.
- Odd playing techniques.
- Percussion became standard.

5

Recording equipment ___ sound, while electronic sound generators ___ sound.

Reproduces, generates.

6

What technological breakthrough during WWII allowed for the storing, handling, and manipulation of sound?

The invention of the magnetic tape.

7

Musique Concrete

Music composed with natural sounds recorded electronically.

8

Sampling

Especially in rap, the extraction, repetition, and manipulation of short excerpts from other popular songs, etc.

9

Synthesizers

An electronic apparatus that generates sounds for electronic music.

10

Computer Music

Sound that is produced using a computer.

11

Chance Music

A type of contemporary music in which certain elements, such as the order of the notes or their pitches, are not specified but are left to chance.

12

What is an extreme case of chance music?

Rolling the dice to determine what would be played.

13

What is a less extreme case of chance music?

A performer being told to play anything at all at a certain point in the music, as long as it was (for example) loud and fast.

14

Poème Electronique by Varese

- Was played by 425 speakers at the World Fair.
- Musique concrete.
- Highly irregular rhythm.
- Interaction of noises with altered human sounds.
- Mournful three-note motive.

15

Lux Aeterna by Gyorgy Ligeti

- Vocal (written for sixteen solo singers and chorus).
- Often sing chords that include all twelve pitches of the chromatic scale.
- Ebbing and flowing.
- Four sound surges. Women, then men, then both.

16

Ligeti

Exemplifies the search for new sonorities. Some of his music uses no clear pitches or chords. He adds so many pitches that pitch is lost.

17

Who is the father of chance music?

John Cage.

18

Cage

Believed that we should open our ears to every possible kind of sound and every possible sound conjunction.

19

Musical characteristics of Cage's 4'33":

- No sound.
- Music is made up of background noise, sound of listener's heartbeat.

20

Minimalism

A late twentieth-century style involving many repetitions of simple musical fragments.

21

Who is a leading composer in minimalism?

Steve Reich

22

Music for 18 Musicians by Steve Reich

- 18 performers (incl. 4 voices).
- Singers do not sing words, only syllables.
- Reminiscent of gamelans of Indonesia.
- When the vibraphone plays, the melodies and harmonies change.
- Make us hear musical process.

23

Postmodern Music

New music that refers to styles older than modernism.

24

What type of music is new music that refers to styles older than modernism?

Postmodern.

25

Crumb

- Wrote music on the poetry of Fedrico Garcia Lorca.
- Called for amplified voices and piano, and a mix of percussion.
- Screams, shouts, as well as more traditional singing.

26

The House of the Rising Sun by Crumb

- Folk lament set in New Orleans.
- Stanzas.
- Sad, bluesy tune.

27

Hallelujah, I'm a Bum by Crumb

- New, comical words were put to the tune of an older religious revival song.
- Strophic.

28

Stanza

In songs or ballads, one of several similar poetic units, which are usually sing to the same tune; also called verse.

29

Leon

- Of French, Spanish, African, Cuban, and Chinese descent.
- Tend to be dissonant and atonal, but tonality can re-assert.
- Dynamic rhythm. African and Latin drumming.

30

Indigena by Leon

- Polyrhythms (overlapping rhythms).
- Joyous cacophony.
- Rhythm and meter collapse.
- Repeated G-major chords.
- "La Jardinera" carnival melody.

31

Polyrhythm

The simultaneous presentation of distinct of conflicting rhythmic patterns, especially in African music.

32

Adams

- Forefront of opera and concert music composers.
- Strong postmodern strain.
- Widely ranging musical tastes.
- Inspired by popular as well as highbrow musical styles.

33

Da Capo

Literally, "from the beginning"; a direction to the performer to repeat music from the beginning of the piece up to a later point.

34

Ritornello

The orchestral material at the beginning of a concerto grosso, etc., which always returns later in the piece.

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