Social processes, attitudes and behaviors Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Social processes, attitudes and behaviors Deck (58)
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1

Social Facilitation

when people perform better on simple tasks in the presence of others

2

Yorkes - Dodson law of social facilitation

being in the presence of others will significantly raise arousal, which enhances the ability to perform tasks one is already good at (or simple tasks) and hinders the performance of less familiar tasks (or complex task)

3

Deindividuation

occurs when individuals are in a group setting
due to the presence of a large group that provides anonymity and causes a loss of individual identity.

example: in group settings, the individual loses his sense of individuality and becomes an anonymous part of a group.
He is most likely to react in a manner inconsistent with his normal self.

4

Bystander Effect

when people do not intervene to help victims when others are present.
the more people standing by, the less likely any one of those people is to help.

5

Social Loafing

the tendency of individuals to put in less effort when in a group setting than individually.

6

Peer pressure

the social influence placed on individuals by other they consider equals (peers)

7

identity shift effect

explains the peer pressure phenomenon
conforming to the norm of the group for acceptance
highlights the cognitive dissonance

8

cognitive dissonance

the simultaneous presence of two opposing thoughts or opinions.
this lead stop an internal state of discomfort which may manifest anxiety, fear, anger or confusion.

9

social interaction

explores the ways in which two or more individuals can both shape each others behavior.

10

group polarization

describes the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the individual ideas and inclinations of the members within the group.
can lead to a riskier and more cautious decision

Similar to choice shift

11

risky shift

term to describe that group stand to make riskier decisions than individuals alone.

when these group shift toward caution the term used is CHOICE SHIFT

12

Groupthink

a social phenomenon in which desire for harmony or conformity results in a group of people coming to an incorrect or poor decision

13

illusion of invulnerability
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the creation of optimism and encouragement of risk - taking

14

collective rationalization
(factor that indicates groupthink)

ignoring warnings against the idea of the group

15

illusion of morality
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the belief that the groups decisions are morally correct

16

pressure for conformity
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the pressure put on anyone in the group who expresses opinions against the group, viewing the opposition as disloyal

17

self - censorship
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the withholding of opposing views

18

illusion of unanimity
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the false sense of agreement within the group

19

mindguards
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the appointment of members to the role of protecting against opposing views

20

excessive stereotyping
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the construction for stereotypes against outside opinions

21

culture

the beliefs, behaviors, actions and characteristics of a group of society of people
passed down from generation to generation

22

culture shock

when traveling outside of ones own society and having the culture differences to seem dramatic

23

assimilation

when an individuals or groups behavior and culture begin to resemble that of another group.
can also mean that groups with different culture begin to merge into one

24

ethnic enclaves

assimilation is slowed down by this
locations (usually neighborhoods) with a high concentration of one specific ethnicity

25

multiculturism

communities or societies containing multiple cultures

26

subcultures

a group of people within a culture that distinguish themselves from the primary culture to which they belong.

27

Socialization

the process of developing and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs

28

Norms

are what determine the boundaries of acceptable behavior within society

29

Stigma

the extreme disapproval or dislike of a person or group based on perceived differences from the rest of society
evolves over time
family members of a murdered or rapist can be stigmatized

30

Deviance

refers to any violation of norms, rules, or expectations within the society
and act that goes against society
any act that meets with disapproval from the larger society such as promiscuous sexual behavior

provides a clear perception of social norms and acceptance boundaries, promoting social change.