Social processes, attitudes and behaviors Flashcards Preview

MCAT Pysch/Soc > Social processes, attitudes and behaviors > Flashcards

Flashcards in Social processes, attitudes and behaviors Deck (58)
1

Social Facilitation

when people perform better on simple tasks in the presence of others

2

Yorkes - Dodson law of social facilitation

being in the presence of others will significantly raise arousal, which enhances the ability to perform tasks one is already good at (or simple tasks) and hinders the performance of less familiar tasks (or complex task)

3

Deindividuation

occurs when individuals are in a group setting
due to the presence of a large group that provides anonymity and causes a loss of individual identity.

example: in group settings, the individual loses his sense of individuality and becomes an anonymous part of a group.
He is most likely to react in a manner inconsistent with his normal self.

4

Bystander Effect

when people do not intervene to help victims when others are present.
the more people standing by, the less likely any one of those people is to help.

5

Social Loafing

the tendency of individuals to put in less effort when in a group setting than individually.

6

Peer pressure

the social influence placed on individuals by other they consider equals (peers)

7

identity shift effect

explains the peer pressure phenomenon
conforming to the norm of the group for acceptance
highlights the cognitive dissonance

8

cognitive dissonance

the simultaneous presence of two opposing thoughts or opinions.
this lead stop an internal state of discomfort which may manifest anxiety, fear, anger or confusion.

9

social interaction

explores the ways in which two or more individuals can both shape each others behavior.

10

group polarization

describes the tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than the individual ideas and inclinations of the members within the group.
can lead to a riskier and more cautious decision

Similar to choice shift

11

risky shift

term to describe that group stand to make riskier decisions than individuals alone.

when these group shift toward caution the term used is CHOICE SHIFT

12

Groupthink

a social phenomenon in which desire for harmony or conformity results in a group of people coming to an incorrect or poor decision

13

illusion of invulnerability
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the creation of optimism and encouragement of risk - taking

14

collective rationalization
(factor that indicates groupthink)

ignoring warnings against the idea of the group

15

illusion of morality
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the belief that the groups decisions are morally correct

16

pressure for conformity
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the pressure put on anyone in the group who expresses opinions against the group, viewing the opposition as disloyal

17

self - censorship
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the withholding of opposing views

18

illusion of unanimity
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the false sense of agreement within the group

19

mindguards
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the appointment of members to the role of protecting against opposing views

20

excessive stereotyping
(factor that indicates groupthink)

the construction for stereotypes against outside opinions

21

culture

the beliefs, behaviors, actions and characteristics of a group of society of people
passed down from generation to generation

22

culture shock

when traveling outside of ones own society and having the culture differences to seem dramatic

23

assimilation

when an individuals or groups behavior and culture begin to resemble that of another group.
can also mean that groups with different culture begin to merge into one

24

ethnic enclaves

assimilation is slowed down by this
locations (usually neighborhoods) with a high concentration of one specific ethnicity

25

multiculturism

communities or societies containing multiple cultures

26

subcultures

a group of people within a culture that distinguish themselves from the primary culture to which they belong.

27

Socialization

the process of developing and spreading norms, customs, and beliefs

28

Norms

are what determine the boundaries of acceptable behavior within society

29

Stigma

the extreme disapproval or dislike of a person or group based on perceived differences from the rest of society
evolves over time
family members of a murdered or rapist can be stigmatized

30

Deviance

refers to any violation of norms, rules, or expectations within the society
and act that goes against society
any act that meets with disapproval from the larger society such as promiscuous sexual behavior

provides a clear perception of social norms and acceptance boundaries, promoting social change.

31

Conformity

changing the beliefs or behaviors in order to fit into a group or society
aka: majority influence

normative conformity: the desire to fit into a group because of fear of rejection

32

Compliance

occurs when individuals change their behavior based on the request of others.
Methods of gaining compliance include the door in the door technique, door in the face technique, lowball technique and thats not all technique among others

33

obedience

a change in behavior based on a command from someone seen as an authority figure

34

Primary socialization

occurs during childhood when we initially learn acceptable actions and attitudes in our society, primarily through observation of our parents and other adults in close proximity.

35

Secondary socialization

the process of learning appropriate behavior within small sections of the larger society.
occurs outside of the home and is based on learning rules of specific social environments

36

Anticipatory socialization

the process by which a person prepares for future changes in occupations, living situations, or relationships

37

Resocialization

process by which one discards old behaviors in favor of new ones to make a life change
can have (+) or (-) connotations

38

mores

widely observed social norms
they are no laws but they do govern the behavior of society and provide a sense of social control.

39

taboo

socially unacceptable

40

folkways

norms that refer to behavior that is considered polite in particular contexts, such as shaking hands after a sports match

41

sanctions

penalties for misconduct that can be used to maintain social order

42

labeling theory

posts that the labels given to people affect not only how they respond to that person but also the persons self image
can lead to channeling of behavior into deviance or conformity
its linked to deviance, stigmatization and reputation

43

differential association theory

theory that says that deviance can be learned through interaction with others

44

internalization

changing ones behavior to fit with a group while also privately agreeing with the ideas of the group

45

identification

refers to the acceptance of others ideas without questioning them.

46

lowball technique

the requestor will get an initial commitment from an individual, and then raise the cost of the commitment
cost can be money, time or effort

ex: you are asked by your boss to head a committee with a time commitment of 5 hrs/month of meetings; you agree to head the committee, but discover afterwards that the commitment also includes written reports from each meeting and a quarterly presentation.

47

thats - not - all technique

an individual is made na offer but before making a decision, is told the deal is even better than expected.

48

Attitudes

tendencies toward expression of (+) or (-) feelings or evaluations of something

49

functional attitude theory

states that there are 4 functional areas of attitudes that serve individuals in life: knowledges, ego expression, adaptability, and ego defense

50

learning theory

states that attitudes are developed through forms of learning: direct contact, direct interaction, direct instruction, and conditioning

51

elaboration likelihood model

states that attitudes are formed and changed through different rules of information processing based on the degree of elaboration (central route processing, peripheral route processing)

52

social cognitive theory

states that attitudes are formed through observation of behavior, personal factors and environment

53

components of attitude:

ABC

A- AFFECTIVE: refers to the way a person feels towards something, and is the emotional component of attitudes (Snakes scare me and I love my family)

B- BEHAVIORAL: the way a person acts with respect to something. (Avoidingsnakzes and spending time with ones family)

C- COGNITIVE: the way an individual things about something, which is usually the justification for the other two components (knowing that snakes can be dancers and sometimes poisonous provides a reason to be afraid of snakes and to avoid them).

54

central route processing

(HIGH ELABORATION)
scrutinizing and analyzing the content of persuasive information

55

peripheral route processing

(LOW ELABORATION)
focusing on superficial details of persuasive information such as appearance, catchphrases and slogans and credibility

56

ego expressive

allows us to communicate and solidify out self identity

57

ego defensive

protect their self esteem or justify actions that we know are wrong

58

adaptive

the idea that one will be accepted if socially acceptable attitudes are expressed.