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MCAT Pysch/Soc > Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Language Deck (29)
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1

5 components of Language:

1. Phonology
2. Morphology
3. Semantics
4. Syntax
5. Pragmatics

2

Phonology

refers to the actual sound of language
(phonemes)
children learn to separate environment noise from other human created sounds like coughing

3

Morphology

refers to the structure of words
Many words are composed of multiple building blocks called morphemes

4

Semantics

refers to the association of meaning with a word
child learning that certain combination of phonemes reprint certain physical objects or events

ex: one can see this skill developing in young children as they may refer to all women as mommy.

5

Syntax

refers to how words are put together to form sentences

6

Pragmatics

refers to the dependence of language on context and preexisting knowledge
The manner in which we speak may differ depending on the audience and our relationship to that audience.

Imagine asking to share a seat on a bus. Depending on whom weak, we may word the request in wildly different ways:
To a stranger: Pardon me, do you mind if I share this seat?
To a friend: hey move over!

Pragmatics are also affected by prosody - the rhythm, cadence and inflection of our voices

7

Timeline of language acquisition

9-12 months:

babbling

8

Timeline of language acquisition

12-18 months:

about one word per month

9

Timeline of language acquisition

18-20 months:

"explosion of language" and combining words

10

Timeline of language acquisition

2-3 years:

longer sentences (3 words or more)

11

Timeline of language acquisition

5 years:

language rules largely mastered

12

Error of growth

when a child applies a grammatical rule (often a morpheme) in a situation where it does not apply

runned instead of ran
funner instead of more fun

13

Nativist (Biological) Theory

explains language acquisition as being innate and controlled by language acquisition device (LAD)

14

Nativist's believe in critical period.. critical period means:

happens between 2years of age and puberty
states that if no language exposure occurs at this time, later training is largely ineffective

15

Nativist's believe in sensitive period.. sensitive period means:

happens after puberty

a time when environmental input has maximal effect on the development of an ability

16

Learning (Behaviorist) Theory

proposed by B.F. Skinner through operant conditioning

explains language acquisition as being controlled by operant conditioning and reinforcement by parents and caregivers

17

Social Interactionist Theory

explains language acquisition as being caused by a motivation to communicate and interact with others

18

Whorfian (linguistic relativity) hypothesis

states that the lends through which we view and interpret the world is created by language

language affects the way we think rather than the other way around

19

Speech areas in the brain are found in the _______ hemisphere

dominant

20

Broca's area

controls motor function of speech

21

Damage in Brocas area results in

Broca's aphasia

22

Broca's (expressive) aphasia

a nonfluent aphasia in which generating each word requires great effort

23

Wernicke's area

controls language comprehension

24

Damage in Wernicke's area results in

Wernicke's aphasia

25

Wernicke's (repetitive) aphasia

a fluent, nonsensical aphasia with lack of comprehension

26

arcuate fasciculus

connects the Wernicke's area with the Broca's area

27

Damage in the arcuate fasciculus results in

conduction aphasia

28

Conduction aphasia

when the patient is unable to repeat something that has been said because the connection between these two regions has been lost

29

Two brain areas responsible for speech production and language comprehension:

Broca's area
Wernicke's area