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Flashcards in Cognition Deck (26)
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1

Cognition

how our brains processes and reacts to information

2

The information processing model:
(4 key components)

- Thinking requires sensation, encoding and storage of stimuli
- Stimuli must be analyzed by the brain (rather than to be responded to automatically) to be useful in decision - making
- Decisions made in one situation can be extrapolated and adjusted to help solve new problems (also called situational modification)
- Problem solving is dependent not only on the person's cognitive level, but also on the context and complexity of the problem

3

Cognitive Development

The development of one's ability to think and solve problems across the lifespan.

4

Jean Piaget's Stages of Cognitive
(list the 4 stages)

1. Sensorimotor
2. Preoperational
3. Concrete Operational
4. Formal Operational

5

Piagets Stages of Cognitive

SENSORIMOTOR

Starts at birth; Ends around 2 yrs of age

In this stage: A child learns to manipulate his or her environment in order to meet physical needs.

Has 2 different circular reactions:
1. Primary circular reaction
2. Secondary circular reaction

Key milestone: object permanence: the understanding that objects continue to exist even when out of view (peak a boo) -- entertaining to babies because they lack object permanence

6

Piagets Stages of Cognitive

PREOPERATIONAL

Lasts from 2 - 7 years old

characterized by:
symbolic thinking
egocentrism
contration

7

Piagets Stages of Cognitive

CONCRETE OPERATIONAL

Lasts from 7 - 11 years old

children understand conservation and consider the perspectives of others. Have not been able to develop the ability to think abstractly.

The child is now mature enough to use logical thought or operations (i.e. rules) but can only apply logic to physical objects.

Their thinking is more organized and rational.

They can solve problems in a logical fashion, but are typically not able to think abstractly or hypothetically.

8

Piagets Stages of Cognitive

FORMAL OPERATIONAL

11 years of age +

(Adolescents)
marked by the ability to think logically about abstract ideas.
Ability to reason about abstract concepts and problem solve.
child begins to manipulate ideas in its head

can do mathematical calculations, think creatively, use abstract reasoning, and imagine the outcome of particular actions.

9

Jean Piaget

insisted that there are qualitative differences between the way that children and adults thing, and therefore divided the lifespan into 4 stages of cognitive development.

Believed that infants learned mainly through instinctual interaction with the environment

10

Schema

can include a concept, a behavior, or a sequence of events

11

Piaget theorized that new information is processed via

adaptation

12

Adaptation to information comes about 2 complementary processes:

1. Assimilation
2. Accommodation

13

Assimilation

The process of classifying new information into existing schemata. If new information does not fit neatly into existing schemata, then accommodation occurs.

14

Accommodation

The process by which existing schemata are modified to encompass this new information.

15

Piagets Stages of Cognitive

SENSORIMOTOR stage has 2 circular reaction. What are they?

Has 2 different circular reactions:
1. Primary circular reaction: repetition of a bod movement that originally occurred by chance (like sucking the thumb). Behavior is repeated because the child finds it soothing.

2. Secondary circular reaction: when the manipulation is focused on something outside the body (repeatedly throwing toys from a high chair). Behavior is repeated because the child gets a response from the environment (such as a parent picking up the dropped toy).

16

Object permanence marks the beginning of ...

representational thought: which the child has begun to create mental representations of external objects and events.

17

Symbolic thinking

the ability to pretend, play make-believe, and have an imagination

18

Egocentrism

the inability to imagine what another person may think or feel

19

Centration

the tendency to focus on only one aspect of a phenomenon, or inability to understand the concept of conservation (that 1 large pizza is the same as 2 small pizzas; they will pick the 2 pizzas thinking its more).

20

reaction time (increases/decreases) steadily in early adulthood and the time - based prospective memory - the ability to remember to perform a task at a specific time in the future - (increases/decreases) with age.

increases; decreases

21

Intelligence is separated into 2 types:

1. fluid intelligence
2. crystallized intelligence

22

Fluid intelligence

consists of problem - solving skills

shows a peak in early adulthood

Declines with age

23

Crystallized intelligence

related to the use of learned skills and knowledge

shows a peak in middle adulthood

Declines with age

24

Dementia

progressive loss of function beyond that of old age

begins with impaired memory, but later progresses to impaired judgement and confusion

Symptom: personality change

cause of this is Alzheimer's disease

patients with dementia, often require full time supportive care in order to carry out activities of daily living.

25

Delirium

rapid decline in cognitive function that is reversible and caused by medical (non psychological) causes.

26

3 steps in the information processing model

1. encoding
2. storage
3. retrieval