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MCAT Pysch/Soc > Memory > Flashcards

Flashcards in Memory Deck (54)
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1

Encoding

the process of putting new information into memory.
Can be automatic or effortful. Semantic encoding is stronger than both acoustic and visual encoding.

Semantic encoding: put it into a meaningful context
Visual encoding: we can visualize it
Acoustic encoding: store the way it sounds

2

Self - reference effect

putting information into the context of our lives so we can remember it

3

Maintenance rehearsal

the repetition of a piece of information to either keep it within working memory (to prevent forgetting) or to store it in short - term and eventually long term memory.

4

Mnemonics

another common way to memorize information

5

Method of loci

associate items w/ locations

6

Peg - word

associated numbers with items that rhyme with or resemble the numbers

(one sun, two show, three tree)

use images associated with numbers

7

Chunking (aka Clustering)

memory trick that involves taking individuals elements of a large list and grouping them together into groups of elements with related meaning.

8

Working Memory

requires short term memory, attention and executive function to manipulate information

the memory that allows us to do simple maths in our heads

9

Long term memory

requires elaborative rehearsal and is the result of increased neuronal connectivity

10

Sensory memory consist of:

iconic (visual) and echoic (auditory)

11

Sensory memory

Lasts only a short time (usually 1 second)
(

12

Short term is similar to

sensory memory

13

Short term memory

has limited duration (

14

short term memory can be increased by

clustering information

15

Explicit (declarative) memory

stores facts and stories

(Type of long term memory)

16

Implicit (non declarative) memory

stores skills and conditioning effects

(Type of long term memory)

17

Facts are stored via

Semantic networks

18

Recognition of information is stronger than

recall

19

_______ is information is often based on priming interconnected nodes of semantic networks

Retrieval

20

One of the ways that information makes it into long - term memory is

elaborative rehearsal : the association of the information to knowledge already stored in long term memory : related to self - reference effect

21

Explicit (declarative) memory can be divided into two groups:

Semantic memory
Episodic memory

22

Semantic memory

the facts that we know

23

Episodic memory

our experiences

24

Summary: 4 kinds of human memory?

Sensory Memory
Short term Memory
Working Memory
Long - term Memory

25

Summary: Long - term Memory goes into two groups...

Explicit Memory (conscious) = Declarative Memory (fact, events)

Implicit Memory (unconscious) = Procedural Memory (skills, tasks)

26

Summary: Declarative Memory goes into two groups...

Episodic Memory = events, experiences
Semantic Memory = facts, concepts

27

Retrieval

the process of demonstrating that something that has been learned has been retained

28

Recall

the retrieval and statement of previously learned information

29

Recognition

identifying a piece of information that was previously learned
It's far easier than recall

30

Spacing effect

A phenomenon that states that the longer the amount of time between sessions of relearning, the greater the retention of the information later on.

Helps explain why cramming is not nearly as effective as spacing out studying over an extended period of time.

31

Semantic Network

when concepts are linked together based on similar meaning

red linking to other colors like orange and yellow
and linking to objects like fire truck and roses

32

Spreading activation

When one node of our semantic network is activated, such as seeing the word red on a sign, the other linked concepts around it are also unconsciously activated

33

Priming

is an implicit memory effect in which exposure to one stimulus influences the response to another stimulus

The effects of priming can be very salient and long lasting, even more so than simple recognition memory.

Unconscious priming effects can affect word choice on a word-stem completion test long after the words have been consciously forgotten.

34

Context effects

common retrieval cue

the context (environmental factors) that surrounds an event effects how an event is perceived and remembered

facts learned underwater are better recalled when underwater than on land

35

State - Dependent Memory

retrieval cue

the phenomenon through which memory retrieval is most efficient when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed

Drunk person will show better recall or proficiency than performing those same tasks while drunk than sober.

36

Serial Position effect

retrieval cue

appears while learning lists

associated with short term memory

when you give a group of people a list. They are better off remembering the first few and the last few of the list

37

Primacy and recency effect

people show strong recall for the first few items while recall of the last few items fades

38

Alzheimer's Disease

Lead to decline in memory
Degenerative brain disorder thought to be linked to a loss of acetylcholine in neurons that link to the hippocampus

Memory loss proceeds in a retrograde fashion, with loss of recent memories before distant memories

findings:
neurofibrillary tangles and beta amyloid plaques (incorrectly folded copies of the amyloid precursor protein)

Sundowning: happens to individuals with mille to late stage Alzheimers, increase in dysfunction on the the later afternoon and evening

39

Dementia

Lead to decline in memory and cognitive function

40

Korsakoff's Syndrome

Lead to memory loss caused by thiamine deficiency of the brain
Marked by both retrograde amnesia (loss of previously formed memories) and anterograde amnesia (the inability to form new memories)

another symptom: confabulation

41

retrograde amnesia

loss of previously formed memories

42

anterograde amnesia

the inability to form new memories

43

Confabulation

the process of creating vivid but fabricated memories, typically thought to be an attempt made by the brain to fill in the gaps of missing memories

This is an example of a False Memory

44

Agnosia

Loss of the ability to recognize objects, people, or sounds, though usually one of the three

usually caused by physical damage to the brain, such as that caused by a stroke or a neurological disorder such as multiple sclerosis

45

Interference

Another common reason for memory loss

Retrieval error caused by the existence of other (usually similar) information

46

Proactive Interference

Old information is interfering with new information

ex: can't remember the new address because you keep thinking of your old address

47

Retroactive Interference

new information causes forgetting of old information

48

Prospective Memory

remembering to perform a task at some point in the future
primed by a trigger event

such as: remembering to buy milk when walking past the grocery store

49

Misinformation effect

when participants are shown several pictures including one of a car stopped at yield sign. Later on presented with written descriptions of the pictures, some of which contained misinformation, such as describing a car stopped at a sign. When asked to recall the details of the pictures, many participants insisted on having seen a stop sign in the picture.

50

Source Amnesia

memory construction error involving confusion between semantic and episodic memory; a person remembers the details of an event, but confuses the context under which those details were gained

51

Partial Report

when an individual is asked to recall a specific portion of the stimulus

very accurate but only for a brief time

method of studying sensory (specifically, iconic) memory

52

whole report

?

53

A list of named of musicians in an individuals favorite band would be stored in which form of memory?

Long term memory

54

7 (+/-) rule

associated with short term memory