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MCAT Pysch/Soc > Sensation And Perception > Flashcards

Flashcards in Sensation And Perception Deck (25)
1

Perception

The processing of information to make sense of its significance

2

Sensory receptors

Neurons that respond to stru uni and trigger electrical signals

3

Ganglia

Collection of neuron cell bodies found outside of the CNS

4

Once transduction occurs, what happens to the electrical chemical energy ?

It is sent along neural pathways to various projection areas in the brain, which further analyze the sensory input

5

Photoreceptors

Respond to electromagnetic waves in the visible spectrum (sight)

6

Hair cells

Respond to movement of fluid in the inner ear structures (hearing, rotational and linear acceleration)

7

Nociceptors

Respond to painful or noxious stimuli (somatosensation)

8

Thermoreceptors

Respond to changes in temperature (somatosensation)

9

Osmoreceptors

Respond to osmolarity of the blood (water homeostasis)

10

Olfactory receptors

Respond to volatile compounds (smell)

11

Taste receptors

Respond to dissolved compounds (taste)

12

Threshold

The minimum amount of stimulus that renders a difference in perception

13

(3) types of threshold

Absolute threshold
Threshold of conscious perception
Difference threshold

14

Absolute threshold

The minimum of a stimulus energy that is needed to activate a sensory system

15

Threshold of conscious perception

The minimum of stimulus energy that will create s signal large enough in size and long enough in duration to be brought into awareness

16

The difference between the absolute threshold and the threshold for conscious perception is:

A stimulus below the absolute threshold will not be transduced, and thus never reaches the central nervous system

17

Difference threshold or just-noticeable difference (jnd)

Minimal difference in magnitude between two stimuli before one can perceive this difference

18

Weber's law

States that the jnd for a stimulus is proportional to the magnitude of the stimulus and that this proportion is constant over most of the range of possible stimuli

In the MCAT it simply amounts to applying a ratio
(1000 Hz and 1006.8 Hz (0.68% of 1000 Hz)

19

Signal detection theory

The effects of non sensory factors (such as experiences, motives and expectations) on perception of stimuli

20

Signal detection theory allows us to explore _______

Response bias

21

Response bias refers to ?

The tendency of subjects to respond to a stimulus in a particular way due to nonsensory factors

22

Signal detection experiment consists of:

Many trials
During each trial, a stimulus (signal) may or may not be present

Signal not presented = noise trial
Signal present = catch trial

4 possible outcomes:
Hit: subject correctly perceived the signal
Misses: subject fails to perceive s given signs,
False alarms: subject seems to perceive a signal when non was given
Correct negatives: subject correctly identifies that no signal was given

23

Adaptation

A decrease in response to a stimulus over time

24

Pathway for a stimulus to reach conscious perception?

Sensory receptor ➡️ afferent neuron ➡️ sensory ganglion ➡️ spinal cord ➡️ brain

25

Sensation

The conversion or transduction of physical, electromagnetic, auditory and other information for the internal and external environment into electrical signals in the nervous system

Performed by receptors in the PNS