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SAT II: Biology E/M > Stuff I Need to Work On > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stuff I Need to Work On Deck (148)
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1
Q

Where does cellular respiration occur in prokaryotes?

A

cytoplasm

2
Q

Where does glycolysis occur in eukaryotes?

A

Cytoplasm

3
Q

During what phase of meiosis does recombination of homologous pairs occur?

A

Prophase I

4
Q

During what phase do homologous pairs align?

A

Metaphase I

5
Q

What are some characteristics of Arthropods?

A

A hard exoskeleton, jointed appendages, molting, and a segmented body

6
Q

What is a characteristic of echinodermata and what is an example of one?

A

Sea star, water vascular system

7
Q

What does the kidney do?

A

Regulates blood pressure, filters blood to remove wastes, and regulates pH

8
Q

Pulmonary arteries and the right ventricle are ____ in oxygen

A

Poor

9
Q

Any organism that eats plants is a ______

A

Primary consumer

10
Q

What do decomposers do?

A

Take organic material and break it down into its individual compounds, returning them back to the earth

11
Q

Is the endocrine system fast?

A

No

12
Q

Where are male haploid cells produced?

A

Anther

13
Q

What causes ovulation?

A

A surge in LH

14
Q

What do estrogen and progesterone affect?

A

The uterus

15
Q

What germ layer is the nervous system on?

A

Ectoderm

16
Q

What effect does parathyroid hormone have on the body?

A

Increase in calcium levels

17
Q

What effect does insulin have on the body?

A

Decrease in glucose levels

18
Q

What effect does aldosterone have on the body and when is it released?

A

Increase in sodium, released when blood pressure is low because excess sodium will cause water retention, which will increase blood volume, which will increase blood pressure.

19
Q

Do plants undergo cellular respiration?

A

Yes

20
Q

What characterizes chordate?

A

Dorsal nerve chords, notochords, Gill slits, and postnatal tails

21
Q

What are paramecium?

A

Single-celled eukaryotes in kingdom Protista

22
Q

What do ribosomes do?

A

Synthesize protein

23
Q

What do mitochondria function in?

A

Respiration

24
Q

What do vacuoles do?

A

Help store waste

25
Q

What do lysosomes function in?

A

Digestion

26
Q

Is a 4-year old child evolutionarily fit?

A

No

27
Q

What parts of the cell do bacteria have?

A

Ribosomes to synthesize protein, but no nuclei or mitochondria

28
Q

Can parasitism occur between two of the same species?

A

yes

29
Q

Is glucose needed for photosynthesis?

A

no, it is a product

30
Q

What is resting blood pressure in humans?

A

lower than 120/80mm Hg

31
Q

What does the Golgi apparatus do?

A

sort and package proteins, and ultimately secretes them

32
Q

Do prokaryotes have mitochondria?

A

no

33
Q

Oxygen-poor blood returns to the ____ side of the heart through the _______

A

superior and inferior vena cavae

34
Q

The ____ side of the heart sends _____ blood to the lungs through the ______

A

oxygen-poor, pulmonary artery

35
Q

The synthesis of amino acids also creates a molecule of ____

A

water

36
Q

Do organisms that live in the abyssal zone need well-developed eyes?

A

No, because there is no light in this deepest part of the ocean

37
Q

Organisms that live in the intertidal zone might have what characteristics?

A

ability to conduct photosynthesis, tolerance of periodic drought, tolerance of a wide range of temperatures

38
Q

What does it mean when a fruit extract hasa relative effectiveness of 1?

A

It is equally as effective as water

39
Q

Does codominance produce a blended phenotype?

A

no

40
Q

Does incomplete dominance create a blended phenotype?

A

yes

41
Q

Radiolabeled amino acids would be incoorporated into what?

A

proteins

42
Q

A virus is considered a parasite because it does what?

A

harms its host and cannot reproduce outside its host

43
Q

If a population reaches carrying capacity, they will engage in what?

A

competition

44
Q

When during cell division do chromosomes move to opposite poles of the cell?

A

immediately after the centromere splits

45
Q

What structure is common to all cell types?

A

plasma membrane

46
Q

Enzymes are what?

A

proteins

47
Q

In what organisms is the cytosol of the cells contained by the plasma membrane?

A

all organisms

48
Q

What is the cytosol?

A

the part of the cytoplasm that is not enclosed within the organelles

49
Q

Where is the blastocyst implanted?

A

uterus

50
Q

Where does fertilization in mammals occur?

A

the oviduct

51
Q

What is a phenotypic trait?

A

visible trait

52
Q

What condition is not met when a new nucleotide sequence appears in the gene pool?

A

no net mutation- if a new nucleotide sequence appears in the gene pool, there is a new mutation.

53
Q

Endotherms are ____

A

warm-blooded, generate heat from metabolic reactions

54
Q

Ectotherms are ____

A

cold-blooded, primarily dependent on external heat sources

55
Q

What is always required for the successful sexual reproduction in multicellular plants or animals?

A

gametes that are haploid

56
Q

What is the normal path of blood flow in mammals?

A

right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left atrium, left ventricle, aorta

57
Q

What hormone regulates water conservation in the human body?

A

ADH

58
Q

Is lymph produced at lymph nodes?

A

no

59
Q

What does lymph consist of?

A

interstitial fluid recollected into lymph vessels from the spaces between body cells

60
Q

What adaptations in vertebrates enabled them to colonize early terrestrial environments successfully?

A

lungs, efficient kidneys, and amniotic eggs

61
Q

What is an amniotic egg?

A

egg in which the embryo develops inside an amnion

62
Q

What would most likely occur if an organism is homozygous for an allele that encodes a defective digestive enzyme?

A

the organism’s homeostasis would be compromised

63
Q

Is light required for germination?

A

no

64
Q

What is required for germination?

A

starch is digested to provide energy for growth, uptake of water initiates the process, and the temperature has to be adequate for enzyme activity to occur

65
Q

What are examples of deuterostomes?

A

echinoderms (star fish, sea urchins) and chordates (vertebrates, etc.)

66
Q

What are examples of protostomes?

A

mollusks, annelids, and arthropods

67
Q

What is the difference between protostomes and deuterostomes?

A

In protostomes, the blastopore develops into the mouth and in deuterostomes it develops into the anus

68
Q

A particular species of flower blooms at night with large white petals that have a strong fragrance. What would be the most probable pollinating agent for the flower?

A

Mohs- (out during night)

69
Q

What is biological magnification?

A

the process by which substances accumulate in the bodies of organisms at higher trophic levels

70
Q

When plant cells are placed in a saltwater solution, the volume of the cytoplasm decreases. WHich of the following is the best explanation for this observation?

A

The water, especially in the vacuole, leaves the cell.

71
Q

The secondary and tertiary structures of a protein molecule are ultimatelly due to what?

A

the primary structure (amino acid order) of the protein molecule

72
Q

What biological process would provide the energy for this reaction?

ADP + phosphate ——-> ATP

A

the oxidation of glucose

73
Q

In interphase, DNA is observed in what form?

A

chromatin

74
Q

The rate of exchange of nutrients and water between a living eukaryotic cell and its environment is a function of what property?

A

ratio of surface area to volume

75
Q

What does nondisjunction during meiosis typically result in?

A

some gametes having an extra chromosome and some gametes having a fewer chromosome

76
Q

What is nondisjunction?

A

the failure of one or more pairs of homologous chromosomes or sister chromatids to separate normally during nuclear division

77
Q

Do mosses have vascular tissue consisting of xylem and phloem?

A

no

78
Q

In what portion of the root does the greatest frequency of mitosis occur?

A

apical meristem

79
Q

What protects a growing root?

A

root cap

80
Q

What is responsible for the absorption of dissolved nutrients in roots?

A

Root hairs

81
Q

In a root, what is the ground tissue surrounding vascular tissue?

A

the cortex

82
Q

What is a noncoding segment of DNA?

A

an intron

83
Q

Did respiration evolve before or after photosynthesis?

A

before

84
Q

Was free oxygen plentiful in the early atmosphere of Earth?

A

no

85
Q

Why do many scientists think that the first cells were heterotrophs rather than autotrophs?

A

the evolution of heterotrophs would have involved fewer steps than would that of the more complex autotrophs

86
Q

Do tropical rainforests have extreme temperature fluctuations?

A

no

87
Q

What characterizes tropical rain forests?

A

high humidity, high species diversity, nutrient- poor soils, and a variety of tree species making up the canopy

88
Q

Oxygen is highly _____

A

reactive

89
Q

What is meant by the term “diploid?”

A

containing pairs of structurally similar chromosomes

90
Q

Why are diploid chromosomes not identical?

A

each chromosome in a pair is inherited from one of the parents, so they are not identical

91
Q

What structure is found in human males that functions in both urinary and reproductive systems?

A

urethra

92
Q

Villi of the small intestine and alveoli of the lung both do what?

A

increase the surface area for exchange of materials, have a thin layer of epithelilial tissue, have extensive blood vessels, and are extremely numerous

93
Q

What do villi in the small intestine do?

A

help absorb stuff

94
Q

What could explain the fact that a woman whose ovulation is normal may be infertile?

A

Her fallopian tubes are blocked, or sperm movement is inhibited by an incompatible pH in the fluids of the vagina or uterus

95
Q

What is the Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium?

A

allele and genotype frequencies in a population will remain constant from generation to generation in the absence of other evolutionary influences.

96
Q

What is punctuated equilibrium?

A

the model of evolution in which there are long periods when species are stable and then short periods of rapid change

97
Q

What is gradualism?

A

evolution occurs slowly over a long period of time

98
Q

In the mammalian eye, the iris has what function?

A

regulates the size of the pupil opening

99
Q

What is continental drift?

A

the movement of the continents on Earth over time

100
Q

What is adaptive radiation?

A

the diversification of a group of organisms into forms filling different ecological niches.

101
Q

When does crossing-over occur?

A

prophase I of meiosis

102
Q

What is an estuary?

A

the tidal mouth of a large river

103
Q

What is net primary productivity determined by?

A

calculating the total primary productivity by producers and subtracting the amount of respiration by those organisms

104
Q

During muscle contraction, what molecule directly allows for the movement of myosin relative to actin?

A

ATP

105
Q

What organelles are capable of ATP production?

A

mitochondria and chloroplasts

106
Q

In creasing the number of stomata on the upper surface of a leaf would most likely do what?

A

increase evaporation of water from the leaf

107
Q

What do the stomata on the upper surface of the leaf do?

A

open to allow CO2 into leaf spaces

108
Q

When heast undergo fermentation, what is produced?

A

carbon dioxide

109
Q

In cool temperature, cellular metabolism proceeds _____

A

slower

110
Q

What happens when yeast are boiled?

A

all of the enzymes become denatured and the cells die

111
Q

Enzyme reactions are ____- dependent

A

temperature

112
Q

What do vitaminds A, D, E, and K have in common?

A

they are fat-soluble

113
Q

What characteristics best enable reptiles to thrive in desert ecosystems?

A

four- chambered heart and endothermy

114
Q

What isn’t an example of energy flow through an ecosystem?

A

usable nitrogen moves between organisms and the soil- there’s no energy flowing through trophic levels

115
Q

In what stage does a fern contain vascular tissue?

A

sporophyte

116
Q

What are the 2 stages in the life cycle of a fern?

A

gametophyte and sporophyte

117
Q

What does the gametophyte do?

A

produces the gametes

118
Q

What does the sporophyte do?

A

grows out of the gametophyte, produces haploid spores

119
Q

What does the hydrolysis of ATP result in?

A

ADP and the release of a phosphate group

120
Q

What substance changes the rate of a reaction by lowering the energy of activation?

A

an enzyme

121
Q

What are restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs)?

A

they are created by digesting DNA samples with known restriction enzymes to produce fragments of different lengths that are then separated by gel electrophoresis

122
Q

What cells take up potassium ions and water when sunlight and low concentrations of carbon dioxide are present?

A

guard cells- become rigid, allowing water to pass

123
Q

What cells serve as storage sites for sugars and starches in stems and roots?

A

parenchyma cells

124
Q

What are parenchyma cells?

A

cells that store sugars and starches in stems and roots and also perform photosynthesis and cellular respiration

125
Q

What are sclerenchyma cells?

A

the supportive tissue of vascular plants

126
Q

What is the number of different phenotypes possible for the progeny of the cross AaBb x AaBb?

A

4

127
Q

What group contains all the protozoa and most of the algae?

A

protista

128
Q

What contains multicellular heterotrophic organisms that reproduce asexually by spores?

A

fungi

129
Q

What kingdom contains organisms that do not have membrane-bound organelles such as nuclei?

A

monera

130
Q

What characterizes kingdom monera?

A

contains oldest life forms on Earth (bacteria), with DNA, and no other membrane-bound organelles such as mitochondria or chloroplasts

131
Q

A pigment important in the manufacture of carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O is contained in the what?

A

chloroplast

132
Q

What will happen to red blood cells that have been added to a flask of saturated NaCl solution?

A

the cells will lose water

133
Q

What is the base of the food web of the open ocean provided by?

A

phytoplankton

134
Q

Are protista multicellular?

A

no

135
Q

An organisms that is multicellular and heterotrophic and has cell walls made of a substance other than cellulose belongs to what kingdom?

A

fungi

136
Q

What protein structure is affected by drastic changes in temperature and pH?

A

tertiary

137
Q

Where is epinephrine/ adrenaline released from?

A

adrenal glands

138
Q

Most replication of DNA takes place during what stage of the cell cycle?

A

before cell division/ interphase

139
Q

echinoderms have ____ symmetry as larvae but then develop ____ symmetry

A

bilateral, radial

140
Q

What are some characteristics of adult echinoderms?

A

tube feet, radial symmetry, water vascular system

141
Q

If in an adult organism the genes A and B occur on one chromosome, and their alleles a and b occur on its homologue, which of the following explains a combination of Ab or aB occurring in the gametes?

A

crossing-over

142
Q

To test the hypothesis that the response to light involves differential cell elongation, an experimenter could do what?

A

compare the length of cells on the sides of the stem toward and away from the light

143
Q

How do the global cycles of nitrogen and phosphorus differ?

A

nitrogen has a gaseous phase and phosphorus does not

144
Q

What does the term “adaptive radiation” refer to?

A

evolution from a single ancestsral species into several species adapted to various environments

145
Q

Products of the light reactions of photosynthesis that later participate in the dark reactions of photosynthesis include what?

A

reduced NADP (NADPH) and ATP

146
Q

If a somatic cell in a diploid organism contains 10 pairs of chromosomes, what is the total number of chromatids that are present in the cell after the DNA has replicated but before mitosis has taken place?

A

40

147
Q

A function of transfer RNA is to do what?

A

poisition amino acids for protein synthesis by pairing with codons in messenger RNA

148
Q

Which of the following statements most accurately describes a basic diffreence between mitosis and meiosis?

A

homologous chromosomes form tetrads in meiosis but not in mitosis