Flashcards in Unit 3A: Neural Processing and the Endocrine System Deck (41):
What is Phrenology?
Phrenology was the belief, started in the 1800s by Franz Gall, that bumps on a person's head revealed aspects of their personality or intelligence.
What is a neuron
A cell used in the nervous system to send and receive messages.
Neurons that send messages *from* the body *to* the brain
Neuron that sends messages *from* the brain *to* the body
Neurons located in the brain which communicate with other brain neurons
The "arms" branching from the body of a neuron that receive information from other neurons
The body of a cell
The "brain" of the cell, located in the very center of the body
The area immediately before the axon that initially begins an action potential
The long "arm" of a neuron which sends a message (length can range from less than a millimeter, to several feet)
The fatty tissue which insulates the axon
The cell that produces the fatty tissue that makes up the myelin sheath
The electro-chemical charge that travels across the axon
The "arms" extending at the end of the axon, which send messages to other neurons
Axon Terminal / Terminal Button / Terminal Branches
(All words for the same thing)
The extremely small gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another
Synaptic Gap (or Synaptic Cleft)
The minimum electrical stimulation required by the axon hillock to send an action potential
The period of time after an action potential is sent that the axon is unable to accept another action potential
Neurotransmitter whose main use is movement
Neurotransmitter whose main purpose is mood (have enough, GREAT! - don't have enough? depressed / anxious)
Neurotransmitter - too much? SCHIZOPHRENIA, too little? PARKINSON'S DISEASE
Mimics a neurotransmitter well enough to bind to the receptor site *and* fire
Mimics a neurotransmitter well enough to bind to the receptor site and clog the site, so that actual neurotransmitters can not fire
The process of neurotransmitters going back into the axon terminal from the synapse after "firing"
A drug that works by preventing neurotransmitters from reentering the axon terminal from the synapse
Oh crap, I am depressed, what happened?
Too little serotonin
Dang, I have schizophrenia, what is going on?
Too much dopamine
I'm all shaky from Parkinson's, what's happening?
Too little dopamine
I can't move, I'm completely paralyzed, WHAT'S HAPPENING TO ME?!?!
Too little Acetylcohline (or presence of ACh (Acetylcholine) antagonist)
I'm moving my body uncontrollably, AAAAAAHHHHHHH!
Too much Acetylcohline (or presence of ACh (Acetylcholine) agonist)
The spot on the dendrite where the neurotransmitter "binds"
Neurotransmitter which primarily sends *inhibitory* signals (makes the receiving neuron *less* likely to send an action potential)
Main neurotransmitter involved with Alcohol
The "chemical messengers" of the endocrine system
Hormone released by the adrenal gland
Epinepherine and Norepinepherine (Adrenaline and Noradrenaline)
Bundles of connected axons are called:
System of nerves (bundled axons) which form the brain and spinal cord
Central Nervous System
System of nerves (bundled axons) which connect to the muscles, glands and sensory receptors
Peripheral Nervous System
Part of the nervous system controlled conscious (inside of our control, e.g. moving our hands)
Somatic Nervous System
Part of the peripheral nervous system which operates unconsciously (out of our control and awareness, e.g. our heartbeat or breathing)
Autonomic Nervous System
The "master" hormone secreting gland which controls all others