Unit 3A: Neural Processing and the Endocrine System Flashcards Preview

McGuinness AP Psychology > Unit 3A: Neural Processing and the Endocrine System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 3A: Neural Processing and the Endocrine System Deck (41):
1

What is Phrenology?

Phrenology was the belief, started in the 1800s by Franz Gall, that bumps on a person's head revealed aspects of their personality or intelligence.

2

What is a neuron

A cell used in the nervous system to send and receive messages.

3

Neurons that send messages *from* the body *to* the brain

Sensory Neuron

4

Neuron that sends messages *from* the brain *to* the body

Motor Neuron

5

Neurons located in the brain which communicate with other brain neurons

Interneuron

6

The "arms" branching from the body of a neuron that receive information from other neurons

Dendrite

7

The body of a cell

Cell Body

8

The "brain" of the cell, located in the very center of the body

Nucleus

9

The area immediately before the axon that initially begins an action potential

Axon Hillock

10

The long "arm" of a neuron which sends a message (length can range from less than a millimeter, to several feet)

Axon

11

The fatty tissue which insulates the axon

Myelin Sheath

12

The cell that produces the fatty tissue that makes up the myelin sheath

Schwann Cell

13

The electro-chemical charge that travels across the axon

Action Potential

14

The "arms" extending at the end of the axon, which send messages to other neurons

Axon Terminal / Terminal Button / Terminal Branches
(All words for the same thing)

15

The extremely small gap between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another

Synaptic Gap (or Synaptic Cleft)

16

The minimum electrical stimulation required by the axon hillock to send an action potential

Threshold

17

The period of time after an action potential is sent that the axon is unable to accept another action potential

Refractory Period

18

Neurotransmitter whose main use is movement

Acetylcholine

19

Neurotransmitter whose main purpose is mood (have enough, GREAT! - don't have enough? depressed / anxious)

Serotonin

20

Neurotransmitter - too much? SCHIZOPHRENIA, too little? PARKINSON'S DISEASE

Dopamine

21

Mimics a neurotransmitter well enough to bind to the receptor site *and* fire

Agonist

22

Mimics a neurotransmitter well enough to bind to the receptor site and clog the site, so that actual neurotransmitters can not fire

Antagonist

23

The process of neurotransmitters going back into the axon terminal from the synapse after "firing"

Reuptake

24

A drug that works by preventing neurotransmitters from reentering the axon terminal from the synapse

Reuptake inhibitor

25

Oh crap, I am depressed, what happened?

Too little serotonin

26

Dang, I have schizophrenia, what is going on?

Too much dopamine

27

I'm all shaky from Parkinson's, what's happening?

Too little dopamine

28

I can't move, I'm completely paralyzed, WHAT'S HAPPENING TO ME?!?!

Too little Acetylcohline (or presence of ACh (Acetylcholine) antagonist)

29

I'm moving my body uncontrollably, AAAAAAHHHHHHH!

Too much Acetylcohline (or presence of ACh (Acetylcholine) agonist)

30

The spot on the dendrite where the neurotransmitter "binds"

Receptor Site

31

Neurotransmitter which primarily sends *inhibitory* signals (makes the receiving neuron *less* likely to send an action potential)

GABA

32

Main neurotransmitter involved with Alcohol

GABA

33

The "chemical messengers" of the endocrine system

Hormones

34

Hormone released by the adrenal gland

Epinepherine and Norepinepherine (Adrenaline and Noradrenaline)

35

Bundles of connected axons are called:

Nerves

36

System of nerves (bundled axons) which form the brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System

37

System of nerves (bundled axons) which connect to the muscles, glands and sensory receptors

Peripheral Nervous System

38

Part of the nervous system controlled conscious (inside of our control, e.g. moving our hands)

Somatic Nervous System

39

Part of the peripheral nervous system which operates unconsciously (out of our control and awareness, e.g. our heartbeat or breathing)

Autonomic Nervous System

40

The "master" hormone secreting gland which controls all others

Pituitary Gland

41

The hormonal gland which secretes epinephrine (adrenaline)

Adrenal Gland