Unit 7B: Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, Language Flashcards Preview

McGuinness AP Psychology > Unit 7B: Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, Language > Flashcards

Flashcards in Unit 7B: Thinking, Problem Solving, Creativity, Language Deck (24):
1

Mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering and communicating

Cognition

2

Mental groupings of similar objects, events, ideas, and people (e.g. "car" includes many types of cars)

Concepts

3

A mental image of the best approximation of all the traits of a category (e.g. When we think of "bird", we might picture a pigeon instead of a flamingo, penguin or hummingbird)

Prototype

4

Step-by-step process of solving a problem - Slower, but more guaranteed

Algorithm

5

Shortcuts in thinking (automatic process of solving problems) - This process is prone to error

Heuristic

6

Judging the likelihood of events based on how well they seem to represent particular prototypes

Representativeness Heuristic

7

Estimating the likelihood of events based on how easily they come to mind

Availability Heuristic

8

The way a sentence of structured can affect how a person reacts to it (e.g. "95% success rate" sounds better than "5% failure rate")

Framing

9

A sudden solution to a problem

Insight

10

The ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

Creativity

11

A well-developed base of knowledge

Expertise

12

The inability to see the solution to a problem from a unique "outside of the box" perspective

Functional fixation

13

The approach to a problem in the way that your brain thinks it "ought" to be done

Mental set

14

The tendency to seek out only information that agrees with our preexisting ideas, and ignore contradictory information

Confirmation Bias

15

Once a person forms an idea, it becomes difficult to persuade them otherwise

Belief Perseverance

16

The automatic process of knowing, without explicit problem solving

Intuition

17

The most basic element of language, made up of individual sounds (e.g. "s", "k")

Phonemes

18

The most basic element of language that carries meaning (e.g. "s" means plural, "ed" means past tense)

Morphemes

19

The system of rules in language

Grammar

20

Rules that govern the meaning in morphemes

Semantics

21

Rules governing order in sentences (e.g. Adjectives goes before nouns in English)

Syntax

22

The stage in language development around 4 months, where the child repeats simple sounds

Babbling Stage

23

The stage in language development around 1 year, where the child uses single words to represent objects

One-word stage

24

The stage in language development around 1 year, where the child uses single words to represent objects

Telegraphic Stage