11 Muscles (Lecture) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 11 Muscles (Lecture) Deck (74):
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3 types of muscle

Skeletal, cardiac, smooth

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Stiated and voluntary

Skeletal muscle

2

Stiated and involuntary

Cardiac muscle

3

Unstriated and involuntary

Smooth muscle

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Functions of skeletal muscle

Balance Reflex Sphincters Protects organs Generates heat

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Superficial facia

Adipose tissue

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Deep facia

Thin layer of connective tissue

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Epimysium

Connective tissue that wraps around named muscles

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Perimysium

Surrounds a muscle facilcle

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Endomysium

Look up in lab manuel Wraps around each muscle fiber

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Muscle segment

A named muscle

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Fascicle

Holds a group of muscle cells

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Muscle fiber

Another term for muscle cell

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Origin

Point where a muscle attached stays stationary durning muscle contraction

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Insertion

End of the muscle that moves

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Agonist

Biceps

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Antagonist

Opposes agonist Triceps

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Synergistic muscles

Antagonist muscles that control fine movements

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Sarcolemma

Muscle cell membrane. Can carry electrical signal spreads in waves Yellow stuff on model

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Sarcoplasam

Fluid inside a muscle cell

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Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Tends to store a large amount of calcium

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The triad structure on a sarcomere is made of ? Parts and what are they?

T-tubules= 1 connects to little pores on the sarcolemma Cisterns= 2 runs between lateral sacs connects to sarcoplasmic reticulum

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Myofibril

They are organelles Bundles of protein filaments

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Myofillaments are ? What are the 2 types?

Proteins fibers Actin and myosin

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Myosin

Thick and dark filament has spurs. Myosin heads (spurs) at the end of each filament engage with actin during a muscle contraction. Myosin stays stationary during contraction.

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Actin

Light thin filaments Active sites where myosin heads attach Actin slides during muscle contraction

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Sarcomere

Is the functional unit of a contraction. Extends from Z line to Z line

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I band

Actin only z line is the middle

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A band

Dark band actin and myosin overlap

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H band

Middle of A band myosin only

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M line

Dead center of sarcomere

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Z line

Length of one sarcomere Includes A band, H band, M line, and about half of an I band on each end

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Draw Sarcomere

DO IT

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Motor end plate

Converts chemical signal into electrical signal

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Synapse

Space between terminal button and motor end plate.

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Terminal button aka synaptic terminal

Releases NTR into synapse

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T-tubule

Electrical signal enters muscle through T tube

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Cisterns

Contain large amounts of calcium. Electrical signal coming through t tubule stimulates cisterns to dump calcium.

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what is the trigger for  muscle contraction.

Calcium is the signal for a myosin head to attach to actin.

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All or none principal

Only applies to skeletal muscle When the contact they contract completely or not at all. Heavy vs light object more or less cells contract.

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Muscular Dystrophy

Inherited, it is a abnormal dystrophin protein. This protein normally strengthens the sarcolemma. Sarcolemma tears in MD people.

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Myasthenia Gravis

Autoimmune disease that destroys the motor end plate.

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ( Lou Garrick's)

Destroys motor neurons

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Rigor Mortis

ATP required to hold calcium on cisterns

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Tonic muscle contraction

Remains contracted after stimulation is gone .

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Phasic muscle contraction

When a muscle contracts then relaxes

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isometric action

muscular contraction against resistance in which the length of the muscle remains the same.

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Isotonic action

muscular contraction against resistance in which the length of the muscle changes.

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Motor units

One nerve and all the muscle cells it controls

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Fine motor control

A nerve that controls one or a few muscle cells

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Coarse muscle control

A nerve contracts 100 or more muscle cells

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Number of origins

Biceps 2 Triceps 3 Quadriceps 4

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Axial muscles

Move head, neck, veterbral column, pelvic floor, axial trunk(abdomin) They do not move appendages.

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Galea Aponeurotica

Tendon sheet at the top of the head

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Abdominal aponeuroses

Tendon sheet that covers abdomin

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Linea alba

Tendon from xyphoid to pubis

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Appendicular muscles

Move appendages

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Rotator cuff muscles

Deltoid, Pectoralis major, infraspinatus, teres major, teres minor.

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IM injection sites

Deltoid for adult Gluteus minimus for kids Rectus femorus for self injections

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Lumbodorsal fascia

Tendon sheet for low back

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Arm compartments (anterior compartments)

The muscles that flex the arm

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Arm compartments (posterior)

The muscles that extend the arm (triceps)

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Illiotibial tract

Tendon sheet on lateral side of thigh

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Leg compartment (anterior)

Extending muscles

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Leg compartments (posterior)

Flexing muscles

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Leg compartments (medial)

Adducting

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Leg compartments (lateral)

Abducting

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Gait cycle phases

Stance phase 60% Weight bearing leg Begins when heel strikes ground and ends when toe lifts. Swing phase 40% Non weight bearing leg Begins when toes lifts off ground. Ends when heel strikes ground.

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Smooth muscle

Wraps around tubes and vessels Controlled by ANS involuntary Longitudinal layer Contracts and tube will dilate Circular layer contracts tube will constrict

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cardiac muscle

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Quadraceps include

vastas medialis, vastas lateralis, vastas intermedius, rectus fermerus

 

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Skeletal Muscle

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Smooth Muscle

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