Flashcards in 15 Lymphatic (Lecture) Deck (103):
What is the function of the Lymphoid system
drain excess fluid from between the cells, defend the body.
Lymphatic system can absorb...
fluid in capillaries
plasma that has escaped the capillaries
interstitial fluid that enters a hollow organ. i.e. the eye (aqueous humor)
interstitial fluid that enters a cell.
interstitial fluid that enters the a lymphatic capillary
Where does lymph fluid go after it leaves the the lymphatic vessels?
back to the blood where it is once again called plasma
Initial lymphatics are also called
* These places do not contain lymphatics
CNS, Teeth/bone, Bone marrow
*Lymphatic ducts do what
Return lymphatic fluid to the left subclavian
*R. lymphatic duct
drains lymph from Right side of the head neck shoulder and arm
*L. lymphatic duct
drains lymph from ever part of the body except right side of head neck shoulder and arm
How much fluid can the lymphatic system circulate in a day
Lymphatic circulatory system is very low pressure because
it relies on accessory pumps like skeletal muscle and respiratory pump.
Lymphatic vessels have many
valves to prevent the backflow of lymph
* What is the difference between a lymph nodule and a lymph node
Nodule lacks a fibrous capsule and can swell in the presence of infection.
Node has a capsule and cannot swell in the presence of infection.
Lymph nodules are found in these locations
Walls of the appendix, Peyer's patch (intestine), and tonsils
Three distinct layers of lymph node
Cortex (outter edge), Follicles (rings), medulla (inner or middle)
The follicles and the medulla of a lymph node contain
Follicles (b lymphocytes) Medulla (t lymphocytes)
Locations around the body where lymph nodes can be found
Cervical, Axillary, Inguinal, Mesenteric (intestines), vertebral column.
What are Salt, Malt, Galt, and Balt
Skin, Mucosa, Gut, and Bronchus associated lymphatic tissue
What are the four lymphoid organs
Liver, Bone marrow, Thymus, and Spleen
What are the four organs that refresh the blood
Spleen, kidney's, Lung's, and Intestines
Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS) what type of WBC
Regional monocytes are
Dendritic, Microglia, Alveolar, Kuppfer
Where are Dendritic Monocytes found
Where are Microglia Monocytes found
Where are Alveolar Monocytes found
Where are Kuppfer Monocytes found
inflamation of a lymph nodule
inflamation of a lymph vessel
Lymph edema is
swelling due to blockage of a lymphatic vessel
Innate defenses are acquired how
defenses you are born with
Innate defenses work how
fast acting and non-specific (not focused on a specific pathogen)
Adaptive defenses work how
slow acting and very focused
Difference between Immune response and immune system.
Immune system encompasses all of systems that defend the body. Immune response is a particular way of defending the body.
Adaptive defenses are slow because
the immune response must first learn that structure of a pathogen
Adaptive defenses are focused because
it is focused on a particular pathogen
First line of defense against pathogens
skin and mucosa
Skin, sweat, and tears defend the body how
skin is physical barrier. Sweat acts as an acid mantle. Tears are lacrimal fluid that contains antibodies.
Mouth, stomach, urinary tract and respiratory tracts defend the body how
mouth-saliva contains antibodies. stomach-acid chamber that destroys pathogen. urinary tract-acidic. respiratory makes mucous sticky pathogens cant get through.
What are the 5 portals of entry into the body
Oral, nares, urethral, anus, vagina. these places all have extra defenses
Second line of defense against pathogens (organ)
Spleen, Liver, Lymph nodes, and bone marrow
Second line of defense against pathogens (cellular)
Four types of cells that part of the innate defenses not involved with the immune response
Monocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, NK lymphocyters
Fever (Febrile) what is it
a defense mechanism
Parts of inflamation response
chemical messengers, vasodilation, phagocyte invasion.
WBC's follow the chemical.....
messengers released by injured cells.
Inflamation and fever are part of
the innate defenses
redness due to swelling blood under the skin
Local edema due to
plasma that leaks out of blood vessels
pain is due to
selling that puts pressure on nerves that causes pain
protiens that defend against infection
interfer with viral reproduction
trigger inflamaiotn and fever
hides iron in your blood from bacteria (iron is what they want)
The complement is
a group of enzymes that defend against infection
the complement enzyme will
drill a hole in the pathogen and cause cell lysis
to make tastey. The compliment marks a cell for death.
Marking a cell for death means
putting up a sign to attrack WBC's
Third line of defense
Adaptive Defenses (the immune response)
What are the 7 pieces of innate defense
Physical barriers, Phagocytes, Immunological surveillance, Interferons, Compliment system, Inflammatory response, Fever.
The immune response is carried out by
T & B lymphocytes
The immune response has 5 components
Specificity, Tolerance, Versatility, Memory, Systemic
Immune response specificity
recognition of what does not belong in the body
Immune response tolerance
recognition of self should never attack the body's own cells
Immune response versatility
We can produce an antibody to match any foreign antigen
Immune response memory
The immune response remembers the structure of every foreigner
Immune response systemic
these occur around the entire body
Acquired Immunity only occurs
*Active immunity is
when the body produces its own atibodies
*Passive immunity is
when an organism borrows antibodies from another organism.
*Natural passive immunity
mother to baby
*Artificial or induced passive immunity
*Natural active immunity
when you contract a desease
*Induced or artificial active immunity
immunization dead or weakened pathogen (flu shot)
* Monocyte digestion of a foreign antigen
digests pathogens into pieces not molecules like neutrophils
* Monocyte digests the antigen and then puts pieces
of the antigen on its outer surface. APC Becomes a Antigen Presenting Cell
* Activation of a T-Cell
plugs into the antigen on the monocyte and became active.
* What is meant by activation of a T-Cell
It means that is is reproducing or becoming clones of one another (clonal expansion)
* What are the four types of T-Cells that come from clonal expansion
Helper T-cells, Cytotoxic T-cells, Regulatory T-cells, Memory T-cells
Becomes another APC helps the monocytes it will activeate more T-Cells and B-Cells. Amplify non-specific defenses.
kills other infected cells. virally infected cells especially
inhibit or turn off immune response. They suppress T & B Cells. Inhibit innate defenses also. If this doesn't work right you have an autoimmune desease
** Memory T-Cell
Library that rembers the structure of the foreign antigens. This is what gives us immunity.
*B lymphocytes are activated by
*25% of the immune response is
Cell mediated (monocytes, T-cells)
*75% percent of immune response is
Antibody mediated immunity (most effective)
*When B lymphocytes are activated the divide in to 2 kinds of cells
Plasma B cells and Memory B cells
*Plasma B cells
Antibody making cells (important one)
*Memory B cells
They provide us with immunity
All Antibodies are what
Y shaped protiens
What are the 2 things that anitbodies do
hinder pathogens and amplify defenses
coats a pathogen so it can't get inside a cell
clumping of a pathogen
clumping of toxins or chemicals (anthrax-organism not harmful it's waste product is)
Complement, Opsonization, attract phagocytes, stimulate NK cells, stimulate inflammation.
Primary Immune Response
IgM slow and weak first response to a new pathogen carried out by IgM
Secondary Immune Response
IgG fast and strong occurs during all subsequent exposures carried out by IgG.
prevent a disease not a cure
contains a weakened pathogen