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Flashcards in 15 Lymphatic (Lecture) Deck (103):
1

What is the function of the Lymphoid system

drain excess fluid from between the cells, defend the body.

2

Lymphatic system can absorb...

lipids

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Plasma

fluid in capillaries

4

Interstitial fluid

plasma that has escaped the capillaries

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Transcellular fluid

interstitial fluid that enters a hollow organ. i.e. the eye (aqueous humor)

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Intracellualr fluid

interstitial fluid that enters a cell.

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Lymph fluid

interstitial fluid that enters the a lymphatic capillary

8

Where does lymph fluid go after it leaves the the lymphatic vessels?

back to the blood where it is once again called plasma

9

Initial lymphatics are also called

lymphatic capillaries

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* These places do not contain lymphatics

CNS, Teeth/bone, Bone marrow

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*Lymphatic ducts do what

Return lymphatic fluid to the left subclavian

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*R. lymphatic duct

drains lymph from Right side of the head neck shoulder and arm

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*L. lymphatic duct

drains lymph from ever part of the body except right side of head neck shoulder and arm

14

How much fluid can the lymphatic system circulate in a day

3 liters

15

Lymphatic circulatory system is very low pressure because

it relies on accessory pumps like skeletal muscle and respiratory pump.

16

Lymphatic vessels have many

valves to prevent the backflow of lymph

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* What is the difference between a lymph nodule and a lymph node

Nodule lacks a fibrous capsule and can swell in the presence of infection.
Node has a capsule and cannot swell in the presence of infection.

18

Lymph nodules are found in these locations

Walls of the appendix, Peyer's patch (intestine), and tonsils

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Three distinct layers of lymph node

Cortex (outter edge), Follicles (rings), medulla (inner or middle)

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The follicles and the medulla of a lymph node contain

Follicles (b lymphocytes) Medulla (t lymphocytes)

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Locations around the body where lymph nodes can be found

Cervical, Axillary, Inguinal, Mesenteric (intestines), vertebral column.

22

What are Salt, Malt, Galt, and Balt

Skin, Mucosa, Gut, and Bronchus associated lymphatic tissue

23

What are the four lymphoid organs

Liver, Bone marrow, Thymus, and Spleen

24

What are the four organs that refresh the blood

Spleen, kidney's, Lung's, and Intestines

25

Mononuclear Phagocyte System (MPS) what type of WBC

Monocytes

26

Regional monocytes are

Dendritic, Microglia, Alveolar, Kuppfer

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Where are Dendritic Monocytes found

skin

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Where are Microglia Monocytes found

brain

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Where are Alveolar Monocytes found

lungs

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Where are Kuppfer Monocytes found

liver

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Lymphadenitis is

inflamation of a lymph nodule

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Lymphangitis is

inflamation of a lymph vessel

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Lymph edema is

swelling due to blockage of a lymphatic vessel

34

Innate defenses are acquired how

defenses you are born with

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Innate defenses work how

fast acting and non-specific (not focused on a specific pathogen)

36

Adaptive defenses work how

slow acting and very focused

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Difference between Immune response and immune system.

Immune system encompasses all of systems that defend the body. Immune response is a particular way of defending the body.

38

Adaptive defenses are slow because

the immune response must first learn that structure of a pathogen

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Adaptive defenses are focused because

it is focused on a particular pathogen

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First line of defense against pathogens

skin and mucosa

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Skin, sweat, and tears defend the body how

skin is physical barrier. Sweat acts as an acid mantle. Tears are lacrimal fluid that contains antibodies.

42

Mouth, stomach, urinary tract and respiratory tracts defend the body how

mouth-saliva contains antibodies. stomach-acid chamber that destroys pathogen. urinary tract-acidic. respiratory makes mucous sticky pathogens cant get through.

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What are the 5 portals of entry into the body

Oral, nares, urethral, anus, vagina. these places all have extra defenses

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Second line of defense against pathogens (organ)

Spleen, Liver, Lymph nodes, and bone marrow

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Second line of defense against pathogens (cellular)

Innate defenses

46

Four types of cells that part of the innate defenses not involved with the immune response

Monocytes, Neutrophils, Eosinophils, NK lymphocyters

47

Fever (Febrile) what is it

a defense mechanism

48

Parts of inflamation response

chemical messengers, vasodilation, phagocyte invasion.

49

WBC's follow the chemical.....

messengers released by injured cells.

50

Inflamation and fever are part of

the innate defenses

51

Erythema means

redness due to swelling blood under the skin

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Local edema due to

plasma that leaks out of blood vessels

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pain is due to

selling that puts pressure on nerves that causes pain

54

Antimicrobial protiens

protiens that defend against infection

55

Interferons

interfer with viral reproduction

56

Interleukins

trigger inflamaiotn and fever

57

Lactoferrin

hides iron in your blood from bacteria (iron is what they want)

58

The complement is

a group of enzymes that defend against infection

59

the complement enzyme will

drill a hole in the pathogen and cause cell lysis

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* Opsonization

to make tastey. The compliment marks a cell for death.

61

Marking a cell for death means

putting up a sign to attrack WBC's

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Third line of defense

Adaptive Defenses (the immune response)

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What are the 7 pieces of innate defense

Physical barriers, Phagocytes, Immunological surveillance, Interferons, Compliment system, Inflammatory response, Fever.

64

The immune response is carried out by

T & B lymphocytes

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The immune response has 5 components

Specificity, Tolerance, Versatility, Memory, Systemic

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Immune response specificity

recognition of what does not belong in the body

67

Immune response tolerance

recognition of self should never attack the body's own cells

68

Immune response versatility

We can produce an antibody to match any foreign antigen

69

Immune response memory

The immune response remembers the structure of every foreigner

70

Immune response systemic

these occur around the entire body

71

Acquired Immunity only occurs

after exposure

72

*Active immunity is

when the body produces its own atibodies

73

*Passive immunity is

when an organism borrows antibodies from another organism.

74

*Natural passive immunity

mother to baby

75

*Artificial or induced passive immunity

vaccination (rabies)

76

*Natural active immunity

when you contract a desease

77

*Induced or artificial active immunity

immunization dead or weakened pathogen (flu shot)

78

* Monocyte digestion of a foreign antigen

digests pathogens into pieces not molecules like neutrophils

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* Monocyte digests the antigen and then puts pieces

of the antigen on its outer surface. APC Becomes a Antigen Presenting Cell

80

* Activation of a T-Cell

plugs into the antigen on the monocyte and became active.

81

* What is meant by activation of a T-Cell

It means that is is reproducing or becoming clones of one another (clonal expansion)

82

* What are the four types of T-Cells that come from clonal expansion

Helper T-cells, Cytotoxic T-cells, Regulatory T-cells, Memory T-cells

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**Helper T-Cell

Becomes another APC helps the monocytes it will activeate more T-Cells and B-Cells. Amplify non-specific defenses.

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***Cytotoxic T-Cell

kills other infected cells. virally infected cells especially

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**Regulatory T-Cell

inhibit or turn off immune response. They suppress T & B Cells. Inhibit innate defenses also. If this doesn't work right you have an autoimmune desease

86

** Memory T-Cell

Library that rembers the structure of the foreign antigens. This is what gives us immunity.

87

*B lymphocytes are activated by

Helper T-Cells

88

*25% of the immune response is

Cell mediated (monocytes, T-cells)

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*75% percent of immune response is

Antibody mediated immunity (most effective)

90

*When B lymphocytes are activated the divide in to 2 kinds of cells

Plasma B cells and Memory B cells

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*Plasma B cells

Antibody making cells (important one)

92

*Memory B cells

They provide us with immunity

93

All Antibodies are what

Y shaped protiens

94

What are the 2 things that anitbodies do

hinder pathogens and amplify defenses

95

Antibody neutralization

coats a pathogen so it can't get inside a cell

96

Antibody Agglutination

clumping of a pathogen

97

Antibody Precipitation

clumping of toxins or chemicals (anthrax-organism not harmful it's waste product is)

98

Antibody Amplification

Complement, Opsonization, attract phagocytes, stimulate NK cells, stimulate inflammation.

99

Primary Immune Response

IgM slow and weak first response to a new pathogen carried out by IgM

100

Secondary Immune Response

IgG fast and strong occurs during all subsequent exposures carried out by IgG.

101

Vaccines

prevent a disease not a cure

102

Attenuated

contains a weakened pathogen

103

Fractioned

contains dead or deactivated pathogens