16 Respiratory System (Lecture) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 16 Respiratory System (Lecture) Deck (69):
1

Pulmonary Ventilation

gas exchange between atomosphere and lungs

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Pulmonary exchange

exchange of gases between the lungs and blood

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systemic exchange

occurs at capillaries all over the body O2 in CO2 out

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* Regulate pH

pH always does the opposite of what CO2 is doing. CO2 rises pH falls and vica versa

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respiratory system enables

vocal communication

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mucous production is what type of mechanism

defense

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where is the upper respiratory tract

from nose to larnyx

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where is the lower respiratory tract

larynx to bronchioles

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conduction zone

conducts air into the alveoli. no gas exchange in conduction zone.

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respiratory zone

lung tissue that contains pulmonary capillaires this is where gas exchange occurs.

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hyline cartilage plates

dorsum nasi

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what holds the nose open

external nares

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transition zone of nasal vestibule

stratum corneum to mucosa on inside of nose

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Why does your nose run when you cry

tears run into the lacrimonasal canal

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hard palate

maxilla and palatine bone

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soft palate

smooth muscle covered by mucous memebrane

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bones of nasal superior boarder

sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal

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Nasal septum

seperates R & L nostril

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The conchea or turbinates

3 ridges superior, middle, inferior

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Internal nares

back of the nasal cavity

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Paranasal sinuses

(maxillary sinuses), above the eyes (frontal sinuses), between the eyes (ethmoidal sinuses), and behind the ethmoids (sphenoidal sinuses)

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The Pharynx begins ___________. and extends to ________?

internal nares and the tip of the uvula

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Nasopharnx begins ___________ and exttends to __________? For ___________ to pass only.

internal nares and the tip of the uvula
air only no food

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Oropharnyx begins _________ and extends to ___________?

uvula to hyoid bone

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Laryngopharynx begins _________ and extends to __________? For __________ to pass.

hyoid bone to bottom of larnynx
food and air

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epiglottis

moveable cartilage covers airway when you swallow

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glottis

opening to trachea

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vocal folds (true)

vocal cords produce speech

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vestibular folds (false)

don't produce speech. closes throat

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Cricoid cartilage

encircicles the trachea holds open

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arytenoid cartilages

posterior side

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corniculate cartilages

tips or arytenoids

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first part of lower respiratory tract

Trachea

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Inner most layer of the trachea

mucosa

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what type of cells are found in mucosa

goblet cells make mucous and stem cells make new mucosa

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what is found in the submucosa

smooth muscle and serous glands

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Adventitia

rings of catilage

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carina

last tracheal cartilage contains sensory structures. responsible for deep coughing

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Primary bronchi

split off of trachea and enter lungs

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Hilus

the point where the bronchi enter lungs

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Lobar bronchi

also secondary bronchi

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lobes how many and where

3 on the right 2 on the left

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bronchi in order

primary secondary teritary bronchioles

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Pulmonary capillaries

surrond the outside of lung tissue

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The alveoli contain what type of cells

simple squamous epithelia that make up lung tissue
goblet cells mucus making cells
septal cells secrete surfactant (holds lungs open)

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Alveolar macrophage

each alveoli has its own macrophage

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Right lung

3 lobes, horizontal fissure seperates superior lobe from middle lobe, oblique fissure seperates middle lobe from inferior lobe

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Lung fissures

bands of tendons that seperate the lobes

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Left lung

2 lobes, cardiac notch where heat sits (indent)

50

Lingula

part of lung that sticks out under the cardiac notch

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* Pleural membranes

serous membranes

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Parietal membranes

attach to chest wall

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Visceral membrane

attaches to the surface of the lungs

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What is between the parietal and visceral membranes

a thin layer of fluid

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Diaphragm controls?

normal resting breathing

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Diaphragm

muscle that expands the lungs

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Inspiration occurs...

when the diaphragm contracts

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Exhilation occurs...

when the diaphragm relaxes

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muscles that control forceful inhilationn

ext. intercostals, scalenes, and ext. obliques

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muscles that control forceful exhilation

int. intercostals, rectus abdominis

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Pons

can alter breathing rate

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Medulla

normal resting breathing rate control it through the phrenic nerve

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higher brain

cortex involved in breathing because you can choose to breath or not

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pneumonitis

pneumonia

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carbon monoxide

odorless colorless gas that binds irriversible with hemoglobin. make hemoglobin unable to carry O2

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*Respiratory alkalosis

the pH of the blood is rising beyond normal. CO2 down pH up.

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*Hyperventilation

decreases CO2 in the blood causes pH to rise. Breath in a bag to increase CO2.

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*Respiratory acidosis

the pH of the blood is falling CO2 is rising

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*shallow breathing

due to stroke in the medulla can result in respiratory acidosis.