17 Digestive (Lecture) 7 Flashcards Preview

Anatomy > 17 Digestive (Lecture) 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in 17 Digestive (Lecture) 7 Deck (134):
1

Ingestion

Intake of food and water but also the drive to eat

2

digestion

breakdown of food and nutrients

3

Mechanical digestion

muscle action chewing and stomach muscles

4

Chemical digestion

enzymes that break down food

5

Absorption

movement of nutrients into the blood

6

Secretion 7 liters per day

saliva, stomach acid, enzymes, bile, mucus

7

Excretion

elimination of waste products

8

Motility (1-2 days)

muscle action of digestive tract

9

How many days for food to pass

1-2

10

*Alimentary Canal

mouth to anus

11

*GI tract

stomach to anus

12

*Digestive organs

segments of digestive tract

13

*Accessory digestive organs

salivary glands, pancrease, liver, gallbladder

14

Enteric Nervous System

part of the ANS that controls the digestive tract

15

*Visceral Motor

Parasympathetic increases digestion (rest and digest)
Sympathetic decreases digestion (fight or flight)

16

Visceral sensory

usually not conscious of

17

Peritoneal membranes

parietal and visceral

18

Parietal

attaches to abdominal wall

19

Visceral

attaches to outside of digestive tract

20

Mesenteries

membranes that hold the intestines in position

21

*Mesentery proper

holds small intestines in place

22

*Mesocolon

holds large intestines inplace

23

*Greater omentum

begins at stomach drapes down over abdomen, then it projects all the way back up again connects to large bowel.

24

*Lesser omentum

mesentary between stomach and liver

25

Layers esophagus through large intestines

Mucosa, sub-mucosa, muscularis, and serosa

26

Mucosa

Epithelium- columnar
Lamina propria- contains many capillaries that absorb nutrients
Muscularis mucosa-a layer of smooth muscle

27

Sub-Mucosa

a bunch of elastic connective tissue
Sub-mucosal plexus - mostly visceral sensory nerves

28

Muscularis

thick layer of smooth muscle that control motility
Myenteric plexus- all ANS motor nerves

29

Serosa

another name for visceral peritonial membranes

30

Mastication

chewing

31

Dentition

full set of teeth

32

Decidous (primary) dentition

Child 20 teeth

33

Dental succession

baby teeth fall out, adult teeth come in

34

Permanent (secondary) dentition

Adult 32 teeth

35

Incisors

front blade teeth 1 root 0 cusps

36

Cuspids

only found in carnavores used for piercing meat 1 root 1 cusp

37

Bicuspids

grinding teeth 2 root 2 cusps

38

Molars

grinding teeth 3-5 roots multiple cusps

39

Quadrants of teeth

4 quad top bottom L R

40

Each adult quad has how many teeth

8 2Incisor 1Cuspid 2Bicuspid 3Molar

41

Each child quad has how many teeth

5 1Incisor 1Cuspid 2Molar

42

Palatoglossal Arch

1st arch anterior boarder between oral cavity and throat

43

Palatopharyngeal Arch

posterior arch touch this with finger and you will puke

44

Fauces

narrowest portion of pharnyx

45

Deglutination

swallowing reflex

46

Common passage way

for food and air

47

Esophagus

is a tube that connects the throat to the stomach

48

UES

upper esophageal sphincter 1 of 6 sphincters

49

Hiatus

opening in the diaphram for esophagus

50

LES

lower esphageal sphinter cardiac sphincter 2 of 6 sphincters. Gaurds entrance to stomach

51

Mechanical digestion

muscles in the stomach

52

Chemical digestion

the action of pepsin

53

Chyme

food, saliva, stomach acid, enzymes

54

Secretion of intrinsic factor

Absorbtion of vitamin B-12

55

stomach defends how

acid

56

Cardia

entryway into the stomach

57

Z line

boarder between esophagus and stomach

58

Fundus

upper dome shaped portion

59

Body of the Stomach

verticle part this is where most of the acid comes from

60

Pylorus

horizontal part where acid secretion stops. Does secret pepsin

61

Pyloric antrum

wedge before pyloric canal

62

Pyloric canal

where stomach narrows

63

Pyloric valve

3 of 6 sphincters

64

Lesser curvature

superior curve

65

Greater curvature

inferior curve

66

Rugae

ridges that allow the stomach to expand and contract

67

*Gastric Pits are comprised of

Parietal cells, Cheif cells, Goblet cells, G cells

68

*Parietal cells

acid making cells also secrete intrinsic factor

69

*Cheif cells

cells that make pepsin

70

*Goblet cells

mucus making cells

71

*G cells

gastrin making cells

72

Small intestines

20 - 32 feet

73

Duodenum

about 10 inches long wraps round the pancrease Duodenum recieves digestive enzymes from pancrease

74

CCK

choleoystoskinin-a hormone that is secreted by cells in the duodenum and stimulates the release of bile into the intestine and the secretion of enzymes by the pancreas.

75

Secretin

a hormone released into the bloodstream by the duodenum (esp. in response to acidity) to stimulate secretion by the liver and pancreas.

76

*Jejunum

where absorption of nutrients begins

77

*80% of absorption...

occurs by difusion

78

*Plicaie

visable ridges inside small intestine they increase the surface area

79

*Villi

are microscopic projections on the plicae

80

*Blood capillary

absorbs 3 of the 4 organic compounds protien carbs and nucleic acids

81

*Lacteal

lymph capillary absorbs lipids

82

*Microvilli

projections of the cell membranes also increase surface area

83

*Intestinal crypts

projections into the wall of the small intestine location of stem cells

84

*Illeum

is redundant

85

Where does water absorption take place

large intestines

86

Large intestines

store and eliminate indigestible material.

87

when does chyme become feces

when it enters the large intestines

88

What type of relationship do humans and bacteria have

symbiotic

89

E. Coli

break down hard to digest material and release nutrients

90

Vitamin K produced in large intestine

is essential for immune and clotting

91

Haustra

sak like structures visable on the outside to the large bowel

92

Teniae coli

3 small ribbons of smooth muscle

93

Omental appencices

globs of fat on large intestine

94

Colon does not include

cecum or rectum

95

Parts of Large intestine in order

appendix, ileocecal valve, cecum, ascending colon, hepatic flexure, transverse colon, splenic flexure, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum

96

rectum is..

normally empty

97

when we feel the need to poop

poop is in the rectum

98

Anal canal

is an inch long

99

Anorectal flexure

90 degree curve

100

Anal columns

allow the anal canal to expand

101

*Pectinate line

at end of anal columns transitional zone from mucous membrane to cutaneous memebrane

102

External anal sphincter

we have control over

103

Internal anal sphincter

only relaxes as part of defication reflex

104

The gall bladder

stores bile it does not make bile

105

bile is made

by the liver

106

bile

helps digest lipids

107

Cystic duct

connects directly to the gallbladder

108

Hepatic duct

connects to the liver

109

Common bile duct

connects to duodenum

110

The pancrease

exocrine and endocrine

111

Exocrine function of pancrease

secrets into a duct

112

Endocrine function of the pancrease

are the pancreatic islet (islets of langerhorns)

113

pancreatic acini

the cells that make digestive enzyme (exocrine)

114

main pancreatic duct

travels through the duodenum (exocrine)

115

Hepatopancreatic sphincter

small sphincter in duodenal entrance (exocrine)

116

Glucagon

stimulates liver to release stored glucose between meals (endocrine)

117

Insulin

signals cells to absorb glucose (endocrine)

118

Head of pancrease

the small intestine wraps around the head of the pancrease

119

Body of the pancrease

the body of the pancreases projects to the left side

120

Tail of the pancrease

where pancrease narrow to a point

121

Falciform ligament

attaches liver to diaphram

122

liver has lobes

2 large upper 2 small lower

123

Hepatic portal system

a vein that brings blood from intestiens to liver

124

Biliary tree

ducts that transport bile

125

Lobules

microscopic lobes

126

*Portal triad

consist of bile duct a hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein

127

Hepatocytes

liver cells that process blood

128

Liver functions

Bile production, Metabolic regulation, Hematologic regulation, Detoxification

129

Metabolic regualtion

stores glucose in a form called glycogen. chain of glucose molecules. glucagon release signal to chop off glycogen.

130

Excess carbs and protiens are

stored as fat

131

Hematologic regulation

the liver stores RBC's that is why it is burgandy
liver makes clotting factors

132

Detoxification

liver deactivates toxins

133

Gastic ulcers

due to infections primarily

134

Duodenal ulcers

due to stomach acid are far more common