Flashcards in 1.2 The Evolution of Psychology: History, Approaches, and Questions Deck (43)
- Uses the method of introspection to identify the basic elements or “structures" of psychological experience
- Important Contributors:Wilhelm Wundt, Edward B. Titchener
- Attempts to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess
- Important Contributors: William James
- Focuses on the role of our unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories and our early childhood experiences in determining behavior
- Important Contributors: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erik Erickson
- Based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself
- Important Contributors: John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner
- The study of mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgments
- Important Contributors: Hermann Ebbinghaus, Sir Frederic Bartlett, Jean Piaget
- The study of how the social situations and the cultures in which people find themselves influence thinking and behavior
- Important Contributors: Fritz Heider, Leon Festinger, Stanley Schachter
Heritability of the characteristic
The proportion of the observed differences on characteristics among people (e.g., in terms of their height, intelligence, or optimism) that is due to genetics
Who are the earliest Psychologists we know about?
the Greek philosophers Plato (428–347 BC) and Aristotle (384–322 BC)
Nature vs Nuture
Plato argued on the nature side, believing that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn, whereas Aristotle was more on the nurture side, believing that each child is born as an “empty slate" (in Latin atabula rasa) and that knowledge is primarily acquired through learning and experience.
French philosopher René Descartes (1596–1650)
he considered the issue of free will, arguing in its favor and believing that the mind controls the body through the pineal gland in the brain (an idea that made some sense at the time but was later proved incorrect)
that the mind is fundamentally different from the mechanical body
asking research participants to describe exactly what they experience as they work on mental tasks, such as viewing colors, reading a page in a book, or performing a math problem
theory of natural selection
- proposed that the physical characteristics of animals and humans evolved because they were useful, or functional
- created by Charles Darwin
a branch of psychology that applies the Darwinian theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior
refers to the extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic
an approach to understanding human behavior that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories
What do people that follow the psychodynamic approach believe?
that it is possible to help the patient if the unconscious drives can be remembered, particularly through a deep and thorough exploration of the person‘s early sexual experiences and current sexual desires
the production of specific behaviors
events that people and other organisms experienced in their environment that could provide responses
Who was the first behaviorist?
American psychologist John B. Watson (1878–1958)
Who is the most famous behaviorist?
Burrhus Frederick (B. F.) Skinner (1904–1990)
What does fMRI stand for?
functional magnetic resonance imaging
Who said that the idea that our memory is influenced by what we already know?
Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980)
Who are other important cognitive psychologists?
Donald E. Broadbent (1926–1993), Daniel Kahneman (1934–), George Miller (1920–), Eleanor Rosch (1938–), and Amos Tversky (1937–1996)
the use of various techniques to provide pictures of the structure and function of the living brain
when we frequently change our beliefs and behaviors to be similar to those of the people we care about
the ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving that are shared by group members and perceived by them as appropriate
represents the common set of social norms, including religious and family values and other moral beliefs, shared by the people who live in a geographical region
about valuing the self and one’s independence from others
Biopsychology and neuroscience
This field examines the physiological bases of behavior in animals and humans by studying the functioning of different brain areas and the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on behavior
Clinical and counseling psychology
These are the largest fields of psychology. The focus is on the assessment, diagnosis, causes, and treatment of mental disorders
This field uses sophisticated research methods, including reaction time and brain imaging to study memory, language, and thinking of humans.
These psychologists conduct research
on the cognitive, emotional, and social changes that occur across the lifespan
Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to understand the behavior of judges, attorneys, courtroom juries, and others in the criminal justice system.
Health psychologists are concerned with understanding how biology, behavior, and the social situation influence health and illness.
Industrial-organizational and environmental psychology
Industrial-organizational psychology applies psychology to the workplace with the goal of improving the performance and well-being of employees.
These psychologists study people and the differences among them. The goal is to develop theories that explain the psychological processes of individuals, and to focus on individual differences
School and educational psychology
This field studies how people learn in school, the effectiveness of school programs, and the psychology of teaching.
Social and crosscultural psychology
This field examines people’s interactions with other people. Topics of study include conformity, group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and person perception
This field studies the psychological aspects of sports behavior. The goal is to understand the psychological factors that influence performance in sports, including the role of exercise and team interactions
method of loci
involves linking each of the pieces of information that you need to remember to places that you are familiar with