1.2 The Evolution of Psychology: History, Approaches, and Questions Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 1.2 The Evolution of Psychology: History, Approaches, and Questions Deck (43):
1

Structuralism

- Uses the method of introspection to identify the basic elements or “structures" of psychological experience
- Important Contributors:Wilhelm Wundt, Edward B. Titchener

2

Functionalism

- Attempts to understand why animals and humans have developed the particular psychological aspects that they currently possess
- Important Contributors: William James

3

Psychodynamic

- Focuses on the role of our unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories and our early childhood experiences in determining behavior
- Important Contributors: Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung, Alfred Adler, Erik Erickson

4

Behaviorism

- Based on the premise that it is not possible to objectively study the mind, and therefore that psychologists should limit their attention to the study of behavior itself
- Important Contributors: John B. Watson, B. F. Skinner

5

Cognitive

- The study of mental processes, including perception, thinking, memory, and judgments
- Important Contributors: Hermann Ebbinghaus, Sir Frederic Bartlett, Jean Piaget

6

Social-cultural

- The study of how the social situations and the cultures in which people find themselves influence thinking and behavior
- Important Contributors: Fritz Heider, Leon Festinger, Stanley Schachter

7

Heritability of the characteristic

The proportion of the observed differences on characteristics among people (e.g., in terms of their height, intelligence, or optimism) that is due to genetics

8

Who are the earliest Psychologists we know about?

the Greek philosophers Plato (428–347 BC) and Aristotle (384–322 BC)

9

Nature vs Nuture

Plato argued on the nature side, believing that certain kinds of knowledge are innate or inborn, whereas Aristotle was more on the nurture side, believing that each child is born as an “empty slate" (in Latin atabula rasa) and that knowledge is primarily acquired through learning and experience.

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French philosopher René Descartes (1596–1650)

he considered the issue of free will, arguing in its favor and believing that the mind controls the body through the pineal gland in the brain (an idea that made some sense at the time but was later proved incorrect)

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dualism

that the mind is fundamentally different from the mechanical body

12

Introspection

asking research participants to describe exactly what they experience as they work on mental tasks, such as viewing colors, reading a page in a book, or performing a math problem

13

theory of natural selection

- proposed that the physical characteristics of animals and humans evolved because they were useful, or functional
- created by Charles Darwin

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evolutionary psychology

a branch of psychology that applies the Darwinian theory of natural selection to human and animal behavior

15

Fitness

refers to the extent to which having a given characteristic helps the individual organism survive and reproduce at a higher rate than do other members of the species who do not have the characteristic

16

Psychodynamic psychology

an approach to understanding human behavior that focuses on the role of unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories

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What do people that follow the psychodynamic approach believe?

that it is possible to help the patient if the unconscious drives can be remembered, particularly through a deep and thorough exploration of the person‘s early sexual experiences and current sexual desires

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response

the production of specific behaviors

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stimuli

events that people and other organisms experienced in their environment that could provide responses

20

Who was the first behaviorist?

American psychologist John B. Watson (1878–1958)

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Who is the most famous behaviorist?

Burrhus Frederick (B. F.) Skinner (1904–1990)

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What does fMRI stand for?

functional magnetic resonance imaging

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Who said that the idea that our memory is influenced by what we already know?

Swiss psychologist Jean Piaget (1896–1980)

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Who are other important cognitive psychologists?

Donald E. Broadbent (1926–1993), Daniel Kahneman (1934–), George Miller (1920–), Eleanor Rosch (1938–), and Amos Tversky (1937–1996)

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Neuroimaging

the use of various techniques to provide pictures of the structure and function of the living brain

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conformity

when we frequently change our beliefs and behaviors to be similar to those of the people we care about

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social norms

the ways of thinking, feeling, or behaving that are shared by group members and perceived by them as appropriate

28

culture

represents the common set of social norms, including religious and family values and other moral beliefs, shared by the people who live in a geographical region

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individualism

about valuing the self and one’s independence from others

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Biopsychology and neuroscience

This field examines the physiological bases of behavior in animals and humans by studying the functioning of different brain areas and the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on behavior

31

Clinical and counseling psychology

These are the largest fields of psychology. The focus is on the assessment, diagnosis, causes, and treatment of mental disorders

32

Cognitive psychology

This field uses sophisticated research methods, including reaction time and brain imaging to study memory, language, and thinking of humans.

33

Developmental

These psychologists conduct research

34

psychology

on the cognitive, emotional, and social changes that occur across the lifespan

35

Forensic psychology

Forensic psychologists apply psychological principles to understand the behavior of judges, attorneys, courtroom juries, and others in the criminal justice system.

36

Health psychology

Health psychologists are concerned with understanding how biology, behavior, and the social situation influence health and illness.

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Industrial-organizational and environmental psychology

Industrial-organizational psychology applies psychology to the workplace with the goal of improving the performance and well-being of employees.

38

Personality psychology

These psychologists study people and the differences among them. The goal is to develop theories that explain the psychological processes of individuals, and to focus on individual differences

39

School and educational psychology

This field studies how people learn in school, the effectiveness of school programs, and the psychology of teaching.

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Social and crosscultural psychology

This field examines people’s interactions with other people. Topics of study include conformity, group behavior, leadership, attitudes, and person perception

41

Sports psychology

This field studies the psychological aspects of sports behavior. The goal is to understand the psychological factors that influence performance in sports, including the role of exercise and team interactions

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method of loci

involves linking each of the pieces of information that you need to remember to places that you are familiar with

43

asmetacognition

Our ability to adequately assess our own knowledge

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