Flashcards in 2 Aristotle Deck (36)
In what book did Aristotle write about VE?
What does eudaimonia mean?
'flourishing' or 'the good life' - enjoying the process of becoming a good person.
Examples of Aristotle's virtues
Temperance, munificence, right ambition, friendliness, good temper, wittiness, modesty, just resentment, high-mindedness, liberality.
What does Aristotle call the middle of his table of virtues and vices?
The golden mean or the virtuous mean.
How many virtues did Aristotle name on his table?
What type of vice did Aristotle have for each of his virtues?
A vice of deficiency (too little) and a vice of excess (too much)
What is a virtuous person according to Aristotle?
Someone who is committed to becoming excellent and enjoys the process of becoming better, practises virtues, if they do wrong they admit it and try and use it to become better.
What is a continent person according to Aristotle?
They struggle to become excellent and can get discouraged, don't enjoy the process of becoming good, but force their self to emulate good people and do the right thing most of the time.
What is an incontinent person according to Aristotle?
Someone who often chooses vice and struggles a lot but sometimes will choose to do the right thing and try to be a good person.
What is a vicious person according to Aristotle?
Someone who enjoys vice, never pursues excellence, is 'failing and defective'.
What doed Plato think about the Forms
The best we can do in our life is to live as close to the Forms as possible (by practicing virtue).
Aristotle didn't believe in a realm of the Forms but that there was an ideal of good to be found in everything.
What does Aristotle say the highest virtue is?
Friendship, as true virtuous friendship allows everyone to flourish.
What three types of friendship did Aristotle say there are?
Utility (for trade, doing things etc.) - impermanent.
Pleasure ('passion' you really like the person) - impermanent.
Virtue (in a community, selflessly helping people become better person) - long lasting.
Aristotle believe humans are:
Political (have opinons, want to share them).
Dependent on each other.
Open (willing to share self with others).
Capable of taking joy in the fact of each other just for each other.
Example of a virtuous government in Sala Dei Nove
Wisdom, justice, common good, peace.
What does Aristotle say about being good?
We are not concerned to know what goodness is but to become good people, since otherwise our enquiry would be useless?
What are intellectual virtues?
Qualities of mind connected to the rational part of the soul.
How are intellectual virtues cultivated/trained?
Through instruction, teaching and practice.
What are moral virtues?
Qualities of character connected to the desiderative (non rational) part of the soul.
How are moral virtues cultivated?
Through practice and habit.
What does Aristotle believe harbours the moral virtues?
How many intellectual virtues are there?
9 - 5 primary and 4 secondary
How many moral virtues are there?
What does Aristotle say friendship is?
"The glue that holds cities together"
What does Aristotle say about loving friendships?
"Loving is more valued than being loved"
What three groups did Aristotle put the five primary virtues in?
Theoretical (3) practical (1) and productive (1)
What were Aristotle's five primary virtues?
Theoretical - sophia, episteme, nous.
Practical - phronesis.
Productive - techne
What does Aristotle say eudaimonia is?
"activity of the soul in accordance with perfect virtue" (using the soul correctly and fully can help us discover happiness)
What does Aristotle (and MacIntyre) say our telos is?
Happiness is our ultimate telos
What did Aristotle think was the purpose of human life?
To develop and exercise a rational soul. Should develop reason and be rational.
What did Aristotle think it meant to be human/why are humans different?
They are able to be rational.
What does Aristotle think about superior or subordinate aims?
Developing virtues is subordinate to achieving eudaimonia. An applied issue is a subordinate aim.
What does Aristotle think about the soul?
It is intellect and reason (noûs), should be developed to get the most out of live, a form inseparable from the body, it is the driving force to acting as our ideal selves.
"Happiness is.. The end to which our actions are directed"
"One day or brief time of happiness does not make a person entirely happy"
Happiness is a cumulative