2.1 Psychologists Use the Scientific Method to Guide Their Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in 2.1 Psychologists Use the Scientific Method to Guide Their Research Deck (24):
1

Basic research

research that answers fundamental questions about behavior

2

Applied research

research that investigates issues that have implications for everyday life and provides solutions to everyday problems

3

peer review

the research reported in scientific journals has been evaluated, critiqued, and improved by scientists in the field

4

the statements made by psychologists are empirical

means they are based on systematic collection and analysis of data.

5

scientific method

the set of assumptions, rules, and procedures scientists use to conduct research

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objective

free from the personal bias or emotions of the scientist

7

laws

principles that are so general as to apply to all situations in a given domain of inquiry

8

theory

an integrated set of principles that explains and predicts many, but not all, observed relationships within a given domain of inquiry

9

What are the 4 important characteristics for a good theory?

First, good theories are general, meaning they summarize many different outcomes. Second, they are parsimonious, meaning they provide the simplest possible account of those outcomes. Third, good theories provide ideas for future research. Finally, good theories are falsifiable which means the variables of interest can be adequately measured and the relationships between the variables that are predicted by the theory can be shown through research to be incorrect.

10

research hypothesis

a specific and falsifiable prediction about the relationship between or among two or more variables, where a variable is any attribute that can assume different values among different people or across different times or places

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Conceptual variables

abstract ideas that form the basis of research hypotheses

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measured variables

variables consisting of numbers that represent the conceptual variables

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operational definition

used to refer to a precise statement of how a conceptual variable is turned into a measured variable

14

Aggression

- Number of presses of a button that administers shock to another student
- Number of seconds taken to honk the horn at the car ahead after a stoplight turns green

15

Interpersonal attraction

- Number of inches that an individual places his or her chair away from another person
- Number of millimeters of pupil dilation when one person looks at another

16

Employee satisfaction

- Number of days per month an employee shows up to work on time
- Rating of job satisfaction from 1 (not at all satisfied) to 9 (extremely satisfied)

17

Decision-making skills

- Number of groups able to correctly solve a group performance task
- Number of seconds in which a person solves a problem

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Depression

- Number of negative words used in a creative story
- Number of appointments made with a psychotherapist

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What is a concern of ethical research?

to not harm the patients

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Deception

occurs whenever research participants are not completely and fully informed about the nature of the research project before participating in it

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cost-benefit analysis

the costs are compared to the benefits

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Institutional Review Board (IRB)

a committee of at least five members whose goal it is to determine the cost-benefit ratio of research conducted within an institution

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informed consent

- One important tool for ensuring that research is ethical
- conducted before a participant begins a research session, is designed to explain the research procedures and inform the participant of his or her rights during the investigation

24

debriefing

a procedure designed to fully explain the purposes and procedures of the research and remove any harmful aftereffects of participation

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