3.1 The Neuron Is the Building Block of the Nervous System Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 3.1 The Neuron Is the Building Block of the Nervous System > Flashcards

Flashcards in 3.1 The Neuron Is the Building Block of the Nervous System Deck (21):
1

nervous system

a collection of hundreds of billions of specialized and interconnected cells through which messages are sent between the brain and the rest of the body

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central nervous system (CNS)

made up of the brain and the spinal cord

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peripheral nervous system (PNS)

the neurons that link the CNS to our skin, muscles, and glands

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endocrine system

the chemical regulator of the body that consists of glands that secrete hormones

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neuron

a cell in the nervous system whose function it is to receive and transmit information

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soma

contains the nucleus of the cell and keeps the cell alive

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dendrite

collects information from other cells and sends the information to the soma

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axon

transmits information away from the cell body toward other neurons or to the muscles and glands

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myelin sheath

a layer of fatty tissue surrounding the axon of a neuron that both acts as an insulator and allows faster transmission of the electrical signal

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terminal button

the end of each axon branch

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neurotransmitters

communicate with other neurons across the spaces between the cells

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synapses

areas where the terminal buttons at the end of the axon of one neuron nearly, but don’t quite, touch the dendrites of another

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resting potential

a state in which the interior of the neuron contains a greater number of negatively charged ions than does the area outside the cell

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action potential

change in electrical charge that occurs in a neuron when a nerve impulse is transmitted

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node of Ranvier

breaks between the sausage-like segments of the myelin sheath

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refractory period

a brief time after the firing of the axon in which the axon cannot fire again because the neuron has not yet returned to its resting potential

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excitatory

make the cell more likely to fire

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inhibitory

make the cell less likely to fire

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reuptake

a process in which neurotransmitters that are in the synapse are reabsorbed into the transmitting terminal buttons, ready to again be released after the neuron fires

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agonist

a drug that has chemical properties similar to a particular neurotransmitter and thus mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter

21

antagonist

a drug that reduces or stops the normal effects of a neurotransmitter

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