5.2 pancreas & glucose regulation Flashcards Preview

A Level Biology > 5.2 pancreas & glucose regulation > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.2 pancreas & glucose regulation Deck (32):
1

what type of gland is the pancreas?

endocrine and exocrine

2

how is the pancreas an exocrine gland?

releases enzymes via duct into duodenum

3

how is the pancreas an endocrine gland?

produces hormones and releases them into the blood

4

what is the exocrine glandular tissue responsible for?

producing digestive enzymes and pancreatic juice (alkaline fluid)

5

the enzymes and juice secreted into ducts eventually leading to what?

the pancreatic duct

6

the enzymes and juice are released from the duct into what?

the duodenum

7

what is the duodenum?

the top part of the small intestine

8

what are the 3 types of important digestive enzymes the pancreas produces?

amylase
protease
lipase

9

what do amylases produced by the pancreas do?

break down starch into simple sugars

10

what do proteases produced by the pancreas do?

break down proteins into amino acids e.g. trypsin

11

what do lipases produced by the pancreas do?

break down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol e.g. pancreatic glycerol

12

what hormones is the pancreas responsible for producing?

insulin and glucagon

13

what do insulin and glucagon play an important role in?

controlling blood glucose concentration

14

within exocrine tissue there are small regions of exocrine tissue called what?

islets of langerhans

15

what are the two cell types in the islets of Langerhans?

alpha cells
beta cells

16

what do alpha cells secrete?

glucagon

17

what do beta cells secrete?

insulin

18

what are secretory acini?

exocrine glands surrounding the islets of langerhan that secrete digestive enzymes

19

what does the body use glucose for?

to make ATP

20

to remain healthy what constant level of blood glucose must your body maintain?

90mg cm-3

21

if glucose wasn't kept constant what would happen to levels?

too high after meals
low several hours later
leaving not enough glucose for respiration

22

through what process does the body keep levels constant?

homeostasis

23

what are the 3 ways you can increase blood glucose?

diet
glycogenolysis
gluconeogenesis

24

how can you increase blood glucose concentration through your diet?

eating foods rich in carbohydrates e.g. pasta
carbs broken down to glucose
which is absorbed into bloodstream

25

what is glycogenolysis?

glycogen stored in liver and muscle cells is broken down into glucose and released into blood stream increasing blood glucose conc

26

what is gluconeogenesis?

producing glucose from non carbohydrate sources
e.g. glycerol (lipids) in the liver or amino acids
released into bloodstream increasing blood glucose concentration

27

name two ways blood glucose levels can be reduced:

respiration
glycogenesis

28

how can you reduce blood glucose levels through respiration?

glucose in blood used by cells to release energy
during exercise, more glucose necessary for muscle contraction
more exercise, higher energy demands, more glucose needed, decrease in blood glucose

29

what is glycogenesis?

excess glucose converted into glycogen to be stored in liver

30

what does "lysis" mean?

splitting

31

what does "genesis" mean?

birth/origin

32

what does "neo" mean?

new

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