Flashcards in 5.2 pancreas & glucose regulation Deck (32):
what type of gland is the pancreas?
endocrine and exocrine
how is the pancreas an exocrine gland?
releases enzymes via duct into duodenum
how is the pancreas an endocrine gland?
produces hormones and releases them into the blood
what is the exocrine glandular tissue responsible for?
producing digestive enzymes and pancreatic juice (alkaline fluid)
the enzymes and juice secreted into ducts eventually leading to what?
the pancreatic duct
the enzymes and juice are released from the duct into what?
what is the duodenum?
the top part of the small intestine
what are the 3 types of important digestive enzymes the pancreas produces?
what do amylases produced by the pancreas do?
break down starch into simple sugars
what do proteases produced by the pancreas do?
break down proteins into amino acids e.g. trypsin
what do lipases produced by the pancreas do?
break down lipids into fatty acids and glycerol e.g. pancreatic glycerol
what hormones is the pancreas responsible for producing?
insulin and glucagon
what do insulin and glucagon play an important role in?
controlling blood glucose concentration
within exocrine tissue there are small regions of exocrine tissue called what?
islets of langerhans
what are the two cell types in the islets of Langerhans?
what do alpha cells secrete?
what do beta cells secrete?
what are secretory acini?
exocrine glands surrounding the islets of langerhan that secrete digestive enzymes
what does the body use glucose for?
to make ATP
to remain healthy what constant level of blood glucose must your body maintain?
if glucose wasn't kept constant what would happen to levels?
too high after meals
low several hours later
leaving not enough glucose for respiration
through what process does the body keep levels constant?
what are the 3 ways you can increase blood glucose?
how can you increase blood glucose concentration through your diet?
eating foods rich in carbohydrates e.g. pasta
carbs broken down to glucose
which is absorbed into bloodstream
what is glycogenolysis?
glycogen stored in liver and muscle cells is broken down into glucose and released into blood stream increasing blood glucose conc
what is gluconeogenesis?
producing glucose from non carbohydrate sources
e.g. glycerol (lipids) in the liver or amino acids
released into bloodstream increasing blood glucose concentration
name two ways blood glucose levels can be reduced:
how can you reduce blood glucose levels through respiration?
glucose in blood used by cells to release energy
during exercise, more glucose necessary for muscle contraction
more exercise, higher energy demands, more glucose needed, decrease in blood glucose
what is glycogenesis?
excess glucose converted into glycogen to be stored in liver
what does "lysis" mean?
what does "genesis" mean?