6.2 Infancy and Childhood: Exploring and Learning Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 6.2 Infancy and Childhood: Exploring and Learning > Flashcards

Flashcards in 6.2 Infancy and Childhood: Exploring and Learning Deck (20):
1

habituation

- the decreased responsiveness toward a stimulus after it has been presented numerous times in succession

2

schemas

- patterns of knowledge in long-term memory—that help them remember, organize, and respond to information

3

assimilation

- use already developed schemas to understand new information

4

accomodation

- learning new information, and thus changing the schema

5

sensorimotor stage

- the cognitive stage that begins at birth and lasts until around the age of 2. It is defined by the direct physical interactions that babies have with the objects around them

6

object permanence

- the child’s ability to know that an object exists even when the object cannot be perceived

7

preoperational stage

- children begin to use language and to think more abstractly about objects, but their understanding is more intuitive and without much ability to deduce or reason

8

egocentric

- unable to readily see and understand other people‘s viewpoints

9

theory of mind

- the ability to take another person’s viewpoint

10

concrete operational stage

- marked by more frequent and more accurate use of transitions, operations, and abstract concepts, including those of time, space, and numbers

11

conservation

- the understanding that changes in the form of an object do not necessarily mean changes in the quantity of the object

12

formal operational stage

- marked by the ability to think in abstract terms and to use scientific and philosophical lines of thought

13

self-concept

- a knowledge representation or schema that contains knowledge about us, including our beliefs about our personality traits, physical characteristics, abilities, values, goals, and roles, as well as the knowledge that we exist as individuals

14

competence and autonmy

- the recognition of one‘s own abilities relative to other children

15

attachment

- The emotional bonds that we develop with those with whom we feel closest, and particularly the bonds that an infant develops with the mother or primary caregiver

16

strange situation

- conducted in a context that is unfamiliar to the child and therefore likely to heighten the child’s need for his or her parent

17

temperament

- the innate personality characteristics of the infant

18

longitudinal research designs

- research designs in which individuals in the sample are followed and contacted over an extended period of time, often over multiple developmental stages

19

cross-sectional research

- age comparisons are made between samples of different people at different ages at one time

20

cohort effects

- the possibility that differences in cognition or behavior at two points in time may be caused by differences that are unrelated to the changes in age. The differences might instead be due to environmental factors that affect an entire age group

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