7.1 Learning by Association: Classical Conditioning Flashcards Preview

AP Psychology > 7.1 Learning by Association: Classical Conditioning > Flashcards

Flashcards in 7.1 Learning by Association: Classical Conditioning Deck (14):
1

learning

- the relatively permanent change in knowledge or behavior that is the result of experience

2

conditioning

- the ability to connect stimuli (the changes that occur in the environment) with responses (behaviors or other actions)

3

classical conditioning

- learning that occurs when a neutral stimulus (e.g., a tone) becomes associated with a stimulus (e.g., food) that naturally produces a behavior

4

unconditioned stimulus (US)

- something (such as food) that triggers a natural occurring response

5

unconditioned response (UR)

- the naturally occurring response (such as salivation) that follows the unconditioned stimulus

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conditioned stimulus (CS)

- a neutral stimulus that, after being repeatedly presented prior to the unconditioned stimulus, evokes a similar response as the unconditioned stimulus

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conditioned response (CR)

- the acquired response to the formerly neutral stimulus

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extinction

- the reduction in responding that occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly without the unconditioned stimulus

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spontaneous recovery

- the increase in responding to the CS following a pause after extinction

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generalization

- the tendency to respond to stimuli that resemble the original conditioned stimulus

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discrimination

- the tendency to respond differently to stimuli that are similar but not identical

12

second-order conditioning

- an existing conditioned stimulus can serve as an unconditioned stimulus for a pairing with a new conditioned stimulus

13

phobia

- a strong and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation

14

Post traumatic stress disorder

- a severe anxiety disorder that can develop after exposure to a fearful event, such as the threat of death

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