Ageing and Frailty Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Neuro > Ageing and Frailty > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ageing and Frailty Deck (21):
1

What is compression of morbidity?

Preventing the older life expectancy causing a protracted period of disability in the elderly

1

What is a geriatric syndrome?

The accumulated effect of impairments in multiple domains that together result in a particular adverse outcome

2

What is the definition of a disability?

A physical or mental impairment that limit 1 or more major ADLs

3

T/F the reason we have more old people compared to in the past is because people are living to an greater age

False, it's because more people are living out their life expectancy

3

What are the healthcare implications of disability?

Rehab

Social integration and community services

Aim to decrease dependency

Potential for primary, secondary and tertiary prevention

3

What are the "Giants of Geriatric Medicine"

Incontinence

Immobility

Impaired balance

Impaired cognition

Iatrogenic illness

4

What is the difference between successful ageing and usual ageing?

Successful ageing refers to changes due solely to the ageing process, unaffected by disease, environmental or lifestyle factors whereas usual ageing refers to changes associated with the combined effects of the ageing process, disease and adverse environment and lifestyle factors

5

What are the healthcare implications of co-morbidity?

The complexity of treating concurrent diseases

Potential for preventing diseases or minimising severity

Fragmentation of services

Minimise risk of disability and frailty

6

What is the physiological state proposed to cause frailty?

Low-grade, chronic activation of the immune system with abnormalities of the endocrine and coagulation systems

7

Why does sarcopenia occur?

Altered CNS and PNS innervation

Altered hormonal status

Inflammatory effect

Altered caloric and protein intake

Disuse

8

What is frailty characteristed by?

Diminished ability to carry out the important practical and social activities of daily living

Excess demand imposed upon reduced capacity

Precarious balance easily perturbed

Risk of adverse health outcomes

Unable to integrate responses in the face of stress

10

What is sarcopenia?

Ageing of skeletal muscle

11

What is cellular senescence?

Phenomenon where cells lose their ability to divide

12

What is co-morbidity?

The presence of > than 2 chronic diseases

14

Which cytokines have been postulated to play a role in ageing?

IL6 and TNFalpha

15

What are Fried's criteria of frailty?

Unintentional weight loss

Weakness

Exhaustion

Slow walking speed

Low physical activity

16

What are the effects of sarcopenia?

Change in gait

Loss of posture and balance

17

Which type of muscle fibres are preferentially affected in ageing?

Type 2 fibres - fast twitch

19

T/F the decline in reserve capacity for each organ is the same for different people

False, different people's organs will decline at different rates

20

What do cells do in response to DNA damage?

Senescence or apoptosis

21

Why are more people living out their live expectancy?

Because there is less acquisition of disease due to better accommodation, sanitation, water, nutrition, maternal outcomes and use of vaccines