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Hugh's MD1 Neuro > Stroke > Flashcards

Flashcards in Stroke Deck (28):
1

Multifocal, synchronous haemorrhages are usually associated with what?

Systemic pathology - typically hypercoagulative states

3

What percentage of strokes are due to ischaemia?

75

3

How do cerebral infarcts appear in the days to weeks after the initial event?

"Porridge like"

Necrotic

3

What is a pathology that commonly predisposes vessels for haemorrhage?

Hyaline atheriolosclerosis

4

Congophilic angiopathy is a risk factor for which type of stroke?

Cerebral haemorrhage

4

In which part of the circulation is saccular aneurysms more common, anterior or posterior?

Anterior

5

What event can commonly occur after embolic strokes?

Embolism can lyse or dissipate and the infarcted area be reperfused causing a cerebral haemorrhage

5

What is a lacunar stroke?

Infarct resulting for the occlusion of a small vessel supplying a deep area of the brain

6

What are some risk factors for stroke?

Age

Hypertension

Cardiovascular disease

Diabetes

Hyperlipidaemia

Hypercoagulative states

Obesity

Smoking

7

Where are the most common sites of atherosclerosis in the circle of Willis?

Vertebral arteries

Basilar arteries

Branching of ICA

MCA

8

T/F Damage to vital brain centres are the most common cause of death after a stroke

False, that is rare

10

What is a probe-patent interatrial septum?

A deformation in closure of the foramen ovale present in 1/3 of people that can rarely allow venous emboli to get into the arterial system

11

Why is it important to attempt to remove blood after an cerebral haemorrhage?

It can be vasospasmic

It can contribute to ICP

12

What is the most common cause of large artery occlusion?

Embolism

13

What is an endoarterectomy?

A procedure to remove atherosclerotic plaque from the lumen of an artery

14

Common cause of non-traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhage?

Rupture of berry aneurysms (or other types of aneurysms)

15

Is what type of vessels are cerebral infarctions most likely to arise?

Small vessels

16

What causes cerebral amyloid angiopathy?

Deposition of Abeta amyloid in the walls of superficial small vessesl

18

What are the three mechanism of that cause cerebral infarction?

Hypoperfusion due to pump failure

Narrowed vessel

Embolism

18

What type of necrosis do you get in the brain?

Liquefactive

19

What is the problem with arteriovenous malformations?

High pressure blood can enter the venous system which can't handle the high pressure

21

What are the most common direct causes of dead after a stroke?

Pneumonia

Cardiovascular disease

Pulmonary thromboembolism

23

What is the most common cause of small vessel occlusion?

Thrombosis

24

How do infarcts appear months to years after the initial event?

Cytic spaces filled with CSF

25

What make a vascular event silent?

The patient isn't aware of its occurrence 

26

What are some causes of non-infectious, vegetative heart valves?

Hypercoagulative state

Deformed valve

27

How do neurones appear microscopically as they die?

They initially swell then become hypereosinophilic and shrink

28

What occurs in brain tissue in the hours after an infarction?

Cytotoxic swelling of damaged area and adjacent swelling of white matter > Increased ICP > Herniation