Head trauma and spinal injury Flashcards Preview

Hugh's MD1 Neuro > Head trauma and spinal injury > Flashcards

Flashcards in Head trauma and spinal injury Deck (34):
1

Where does traumatic axonal injury most commonly appear?

The corpus callosum

1

Is grey or white matter predominantly affected in vasogenic cerebral oedema?

White matter

1

Which type of cerebral oedema is responsive to steroid treatment?

Vasogenic

2

What is the volume of CSF?

150mL

3

What is a cause of chronic traumatic encephalopathy?

Repeated traumatic injury to the brain eg in boxers

3

What occurs if rising ICP can't be compensated for?

There is herniation of brain hemisphere through dural openings

Brain perfusion can cease if ICP overtakes cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP)

3

What is vasogenic cerebral oedema caused by?

Blood-brain barrier disruption due to increased vascular permeability

4

What is a concussion characterised by?

Temporary lose of consciousness, respiratory arrest and reflexes

5

What are contusions?

Haemorrhagic necrosis in the brain

6

Can subdural bleeds cause raised ICP?

Yes

7

What are the longterm effects of diffuse axonal injury?

Brain atropy

8

What are some non-acute effects of traumatic injury?

Infection

Epilepsy

10

What are some acute secondary effects of traumatic injury?

Hypoxia

Ischaemia

Raised ICP

12

How much does the scalp bleed?

A lot

13

What is a common cause of concussion?

Rapid change of momentum of the brain

14

What is it called when skull fractures have splintering of bone?

Comminuted

15

What symptom is characteristic of subarachnoid bleeds?

A thunderclap headache

15

What is chronic traumatic encephalopathy characteristed by?

Brain atropy due to neuronal lose

Abnormal deposition of Tau protein

Often deposition of A-beta plaques in the cortex

17

When do subarachnoid haemorrhages generally occur?

Aneurysms following trauma

18

How do old cerebral contusions appear?

Drooping of brain tissue along gyri and deposition of orange tissue - indicative of healing by macrophages and scarring

18

What is hydrocephalus?

Dilation of the ventricles due to interruption of CSF flow - brain is damaged as a result

21

Diffuse vascular injury affects which vessels?

V. small vessels

22

Is grey or white matter affect in cytotoxic cerebral oedema?

Both

23

Subdural haemorrhages are more common in which age group? Why?

The elderly because atropy of the brain tends to greater tension on the subdural veins making them more likely to tear

25

Why are contusions on the base of the brain common?

Protuding, boney structures can be rubbed against

26

In which age group are epidural bleeds less likely? Why?

The elderly because their dura adheres more strongly to the skull

27

How does an atropied brain appear?

Enlarged ventricles

Thin corpus callosum

White matter is generally thinner

28

What is a contrecoup?

When the brain bounces against the back wall of the skull resulting in injury to both sides of the brain

29

What are the compensations for rising ICP?

Ventricles shrink

Gyri flatten out

Blood is forced out

30

What is cytotoxic cerebral oedema caused by?

Increased intracellular fluid secondary to neuronal, glial, or endothelial cell injury

31

What are common site for contusions on the base of the brain?

Inferior frontal lobe (eg olfactory bulbs)

Inferiorlateral temporal lobe

32

Subdural haemorrhage are due to damage to which vessels?

Subdural veins eg the superior cerebral veins

33

What determines the damage done by a bullet?

The velocity of the bullet because that = kinetic energy = degree of shock waves

34

What does blood/CSF from the nose or ears indicate?

Basal functure (fracture of the base of the skull)