What is the post ganglionic neurotransmitter and receptor in the sympathetic NS?
NA and adrenoceptors
and a few ACh with muscarinic
What are some common non-classical neurotransmitters?
What is the difference between a supraspinal and spinal reflex?
Supraspinal reflexes integrate input from the brain
Spinal reflexes don't
What is the most important structure in the central coordination of autonomic output and what information does it receive?
Intrinsic sensory structures eg osmoreceptors
Do prevertebral ganglia coordinate divergently or covergently?
What is the post ganglionic neurotransmitter and receptor in the parasympathetic NS?
ACh and muscarinic
What are the brainstem nuclei of the parasympathetic NS?
Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus and nucleus ambiguous
What is unique about the pelvic ganglia?
They are mix of para and sympathetic NS
Generally just a relay station
Parasympathetic have unusually long axons: vunerable
What are some examples of sympathetic NS responses?
Increase HR and contractility
Increase blood to skeletal muscles
Decrease blood to gut
Decrease gut motility
Which nerves of the autonomic nervous system originate from the cervical and lumbar enlargements?
Where do nerves of the parasympathetic NS originate in the spinal cord?
Brainstem and sacrum
Where are ganglia of the parasympathetic NS system generally found?
Where are the ganglia and what structures do they supply for paravertebral ganglion?
In a chain parallel to the spinal cord
Supplies the vessels
What are some examples of parasympathetic action?
Decrease HR and contractily
Increase gut motility
Neurotransmission at organs sometimes differs to skeletal muscle, how so?
More than one transmission point per axon
Where are the ganglia and what structures do they supply for prevertebral ganglion?
Anterior to the spinal cord
Non-vascular smooth muscle
Do paravertebral ganglia coordinate divergently or covergently?
What makes the sympathetic NS response potentially greater than the parasympathetic?
Activation of the adrenal glands and release of circulating hormones (adrenaline and noradrenaline)
Where do nerves for the sympathetic nervous system originate in the spinal cord?
What is the preganglionic neurotransmitter and receptor in the autonomic NS?
ACh and nicotinic
What does the caudal part of the nucleus of the solitary tract do in processing of information for reflexes?
Either sends output back to the local reflex centre in the SC
Sends information up to the higher centre to drive more complex responses
Where are the pre-ganglionic nuclei of the sympathetic NS in the spinal cord?
Intermediolateral cell column
What structure allows the supraspinal aspect of the autonomic system?
Caudal part of the nucleus of the solitary tract
What the two patterns of ganglia structure in the sympathetic NS?
Paravertebral - parallel to the spinal cord
Prevertebral - on the midline